presentation_25 - Lecture 25 Humans as agents of evolution...

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1 Lecture 25 Humans as agents of evolution Evolution, a curse and a blessing Resistance in pathogens Bacterial diseases Tuberculosis Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella (food, typhoid) Streptococcus pneumoniae Enterococcus faecium Gonorrhea (STD) Viral diseases Influenza HIV Herpes Hepatitus
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2 How antibiotics kill bacteria • Antibiotic attaches to the cell walls of bacteria and destroys a key component of the cell wall. With its cell wall disrupted, the bacterium dies. Discovered 1986 Isolated by Fleming in 1928 First medical use: 1940 Mass production: 1943 Widespread use in WWII First resistance in mid-1940±s • long leading cause of death in USA • still a leading cause worldwide serious opportunistic infection in immuno- compromised individuals Tuberculosis: prior to antibiotics, often fatal. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
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3 Benefts oF antibiotics Penicillin Staphylococcus aureus is usually a harmless passenger in the human body, but it can cause pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome. The frst penicillin- resistant strains oF “Staph” isolated in 1947! it is called the “flesh- eating bacterium.”
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4 Speed of Evolution of Resistance Antibiotic Year deployed Resistance Penicillin 1943 1947 Streptomycin 1943 1959 Tetracyclin 1948 1953 Erythromycin 1952 1988 Vancomycin 1956 1988 Methicillin 1960 1961 Cephalosporins 1960±s late 1960±s Percentage of hospital Staphylococcus that are multi-drug resistant “It's a serious threat now, and it's getting worse fast.”
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This note was uploaded on 09/28/2008 for the course BIOEE 2780 taught by Professor Geber during the Fall '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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presentation_25 - Lecture 25 Humans as agents of evolution...

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