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presentation_22 - Lecture 22 Evolution of genes genomes...

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Lecture 22 • How have genes and genomes evolved over time? • How do these changes result in new structures and new functions (novelty)? • Can we understand evolutionary history and mechanisms by comparing genomes across lineages? Origin of genomic variation
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Reminder of major “domains” of life Eucarya Bacteria Archaea 3.5 BYA 2.0 BYA Genome size varies by orders of magnitude b/w species and higher taxa Amount of DNA (picograms)
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• DNA content of cells same within species ==> C-value: constant value. • C-value thought to reflect number of coding sequences and so reflect “complexity”. • Why would C-value differ so greatly between species, especially closely related species (e.g., salamanders)? • Discovery of non-coding sequences. • Eukaryotic genomes contain far more non- Archaea) genomes (which tend to be quite compact). • Sequences can be classiFed according to (1) function (coding, regulatory, or non-coding) (2) copy number (how many times the sequence is represented in the genome). Genome composition
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presentation_22 - Lecture 22 Evolution of genes genomes...

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