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presentation_5 - Nature 2007 448:1041 Extinct bee captured...

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Extinct bee captured in amber carrying pollen structures (pollinia) of an orchid 15-20 Mya pollinia Nature 2007 448:1041 Lecture 5 Origin of Humans Origin of Humans Mammals Primates Old World Monkeys & Great Apes Great Apes Hominids Homo H. sapiens Close Mammalian Orders to Primates ~60 myr Tree shrews SE Asia Bats Worlwide Flying lemurs SE Asia Worldwide Monkeys
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Primate Phylogeny Monkeys New world Monkeys & Apes Old world Tarsiers Old world Lemurs Africa, Asia New & Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys Macaque Baboon 20-25 myr Old World Monkeys & Apes Gibbon ~15 myr Orangutan Chimp Great Apes 8-9 myr Great Apes & Humans - Traditional view Apes O C H G O G C H Ape vs. Human Protruding jaws Sloped face Large canines Smaller braincase Apes O C H G O G C H Ape vs. Human Forelimbs hindlimbs 4 legged posture Arboreal & terrestrial
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Conclusion based on molecular (DNA) data O C H G C O O C H G O C H G 1 O C H G 2 O G H C 3 ?? Which One? Chimps, Gorillas & Humans Chimpanzee Gorilla H. sapiens O C H G 1 Traditional view In addition to characters shared with orangutans, - Knuckle-walking - Thin tooth enamel - Thumb not fully opposable Chimpanzee Gorilla
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Human Hand Power grip Precision grip (opposable thumb) Locomotion Conclusion based on molecular (DNA) data O C H G Sequence Type Size (kb) C-H G-H C-G Noncoding intergenic 24.2 1.24 1.62 1.63 Intronic 16.4 0.93 1.23 1.21 Coding - synonymous 29.3 1.11 1.48 1.64
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