11_physical_ocean_2 - Ocean Dynamics Outline 1 Overview of...

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1 Ocean Dynamics Outline 1. Overview of Observed Physical Patterns Winds, Ocean Temperature, Salinity, Surface + Deep Currents 2. Atmospheric Circulation Coriolis Force, Atmospheric Convection, Hadley Circulation, Surface Wind Patterns 3. Density Structure of the Ocean Salinity Variations, Ocean Heating and Cooling, Seawater Density, Buoyancy and Density Strati±cation 4. Wind-Driven Surface Circulation Acting Forces, Ekman Transport in the Surface Ocean, Geostrophic Currents in the Subsurface Ocean, Subtropical Gyre Circulation, Equatorial and Coastal Upwelling 5. Thermohaline Circulation of the Deep Ocean Water Mass Identi±cation by T-S Signature, Rate of Movement with 14 C, Location of Deepwater Formation, Global Conveyor Belt Circulation and Global Heat Transport Density Structure of the Ocean 1. Ocean currents are forced by the direct action winds blowing over the ocean surface and by internal pressure forces created, in part, by the unequal distribution of density in the ocean. 2. The vertical distribution of density directly influences the vertical movement of water in the ocean and indirectly influences the horizontal movement. 3. Because salt concentration and temperature jointly determine seawater density, the concepts of ocean salinity and ocean heat content are presented in some detail.
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2 Surface Salinity 1. The total salt content of the ocean is essentially constant a) Input: Weathering of continental rock, and subsequent transport by rivers, brings salt ions to the ocean b) Output: Mineral precipitation within the ocean removes salt ions from solution c) The input and output rates have been roughly equal for millions of year - i.e. steady state conditions have been achieved 3. Salinity is a measure of salt concentration and is often expressed as the number of grams of salt in a thousand grams of seawater, expressed as parts per thousand and denoted by the symbol ‰. 35 grams of salt in 1000 grams of seawater has a salinity of 35 Note that the symbol is closely related the symbol for parts per hundred % also known as percentage
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11_physical_ocean_2 - Ocean Dynamics Outline 1 Overview of...

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