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Chapter3_evaluating_thermaldynamic_propertities

Chapter3_evaluating_thermaldynamic_propertities -...

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Unformatted text preview: Constant— pressure line Pressure 8 L . i Critical Q) Q) 5’; S rd LiQUid . a point a 0’ Critical 3 G- l 1' point ”- i i ii / V‘s. \ \ [Liquidn \ vapor _ . Triple line Vapor Soiid—vapor ' ’ Temperature Specific volume (b) (c) Figure 3.2 p—v-Tsurface and projections for a substance that contracts on freezing. (a) Three‘ dimensional view. ([2) Phase diagram. (c) pwv diagram. Vapor Triple point Critical E Liquid point é“ ' 5 Pressure Triple line -—-’ ‘ Solid-vapor T < TC Temperature Specific volume (6) (c) Figure 3.! paw-J“ surface and projections for a substance that exandsgl_ (a) Three- dimensionai View. (2;) Phase diagram. (c) p—v diagram. ( ' H O) 8' 3 ‘3 2 218d ‘amssgjd JOdB A biwmso .% muggy 302533 San H333 p8 was: 5533mm. :omg @233 Man magma M ,mpESmmEPfl 0% DE, . 10% _, .0809”: comes 2:- :o OOH 5:822 com com o8 avg EmSwEum , com ., coo ‘ ‘ Ln M och m com , . l , o m 003 09x06 cm 00: , ”82me M w 8 8S 8: so: 82 82 so: .. . £558qu _. ‘ wwwwww 12 003 oomfloomfi Go: 002 com com cor com com cow. com com as o m “BENSQENH % (“737% 0% “V—‘Tgumcacg; W3 L+\/ coem’f (V4 owdoma‘) S +L caffit‘sf S +V w—exz‘st W mg [mg MW WEE”; M We PM)? 3251455 Tn‘pk Me: Time pimw; (LAW—8) mxbs‘é. A 190in {14 {JITSW =‘ {315?} ,Ttp Cmfmd fwd/’1 ”The sifiie 006 W flop 0‘9 W mm 01AM fchc) ‘02 EM La" wmw C02. @7549 0.00m: laws T15? 27%.t6 K. ’96; was? Ems 7m hm Tc. Mina K 3% K (gag, Mpmfifi SI. {Evflfagéx tmi‘ffl _ Tfipwg . Weds/W W m W3 Prayer SWW1L+-V 7&3 7,8 (0,” BM? {5M7 wwkacw V 9V? 9 [Z My ’8 Wm {71.15263 [6 MflW/WO " '4 M >? ("3%) M RWY/fig J5. 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W molar speak Wm M: #W155, and A univem‘ <3 3 4 mJ/QW K E: 4w .2: a 61% Bh/lbmmle ”E (/«mSfiWE 15:45“ £{-lg¢/lng/€ ,C’E Enqézrmg §9V%V‘)WM 351$ (414915 49w) 9 Mae» ’1)”; W (MUN!) digit/4AA CY){T)/(U”(T) hbeusd) A22 MAE fin» w) 101201,) HLOUW) co) (o; O T 4% {m M m S A1046?“ {fan'v‘r aWcar {35v 6L3“ OMEI' Ave m 5,113 mam £qu :11 Ché. 30 MT Wm m‘fl m {JR} «FR magi r14 ch35 mpema EAT/wk ML M W my mtg A23 £3? pa {ETMQMQWL Pmpewfiefi 0mg rckrevwdx aging “:49‘350'20 WOK, 5V 5m Mad 6:15 {4in 6524;4me S omc M' ENG/€022 } \CET 4W: W475: 14M dafléafwf) WW [izwmfigamfl a SLIM C‘fflwm [ON/WW3 Céfi/Wifiéj flglfléli‘? /_ e um Gm HTML JTWOAWM Black) Joseph isolator of Carbon Dioxide; Definer of Latent Heat and Heat Capacity 1728—1799 WORLD EVENTS Butcr‘s L1FE Peace of Utrecht 1715-15 settles War of Spanish Succession 1728 loseph Black is born 1754 Black earns medical degree from University of Glasgow 1756 Black’s carbon dioxide 3 work is published; he becomes professor of chemistry and anatomy at University of Glasgow c41760 Black discovers heat capacity 1762 Black discovers t latent heat 1765 James Watt designs improved steam engine United States 1776 independence French Revolution 1789 17199 Black dies Napoleonic Wars 1803—15 ‘in Europe Life and Vii/Eire oseph lilaclt isolated carbon dioxide and, Jthrottgh experimentation, revealed many of its properties. 1' 1e also introduced the concepts oflatcnt heat and heat capacity. Blaclt was born on April 16, 1723, in Bordeaux, France. He studied anatomy and medicine at the University of Glasgow, and he received a medical degree from the University of Edinburgh in 1754. Two years later he became professor of chemistry and anatomy at Glasgow. 81: his doctoral worlt, published in 1756‘ concerned his investigations of carbon dioxide) which he called “fixed air,” tie heated lime— stone, which yielded quicldime and carbon dioxide. Adding water to the quickiime and boiling the mixture with potassium carbonate. he recovered the original weight of limestone. He thus demonstrated that gases could be studied in combination with other chemical substances and that such. experiments could be analyzed quantitatively 11168:: and subsequent experiments showed that carbon dioxide acts as an acid, is produced during respiration, and is present: in the atmosphere. Aroun t 1760 Blacks research turned to the physical study of heart fie noted that when equal weights of mercury and water were heated over the same flame, the temperature of the mercury rose twice as fasr as that of the water. This challenged the assumption that heat fills all substances equally, The experi— ment showed that substances have differing capacities to capture and hold heat. He called this property heat capacity. Two years later Black found that when be heated a mixture of ice and water just until the ice melted, the temperature of the mi);— ture did not change. He theorized that heat can cause a change of state in a substance Witl'tt'JUl changing the temperature of the sub— stance. Such heat he called latent, from the Latin for “hidden.” Black died on November 10, 1799, in Edinburgh, Scorland. Legacy lack’s discoveries of latent heat and heat capacity helped lAMES WATT to For Further Reading: revolutionize steam power, and his ertperi~ ments with carbon dioxide moved gases from the realm of mystery to that ofquan— titarively understandable chemicals. in the 17605, while attempting to improve a single—cylinder Newcornen steam engine, watt became stuclt at a problem involving heat transfer. He had designed an engine with a second cylinder for the condensation ot‘steam. The steam was to be condensed by surrounding this cylinder with cold water. As the heat from the steam warmed the sur— rounding; water, the warm water had to be replaced. with cold. \Xlatt wondered how much heat the steam needed to lose to con— dense and thus how much cold water would be needed to absorb this heat with each strolte of the engine. After discussing the principles of latent heat with Black, Watt performed experiments to determine the. latent heat of steam condensationwprecisely the information he sought. Armed with experimental data, he completed the design of his steam engine in 1765. Black’s worlt on carbon dioxide led scien— tists to study other gases He inspired HENRY CAVENDISH, in the 1760s, to become the first to study hydrogen in depth and report on its properties, and he encouraged the experiments of his student Daniel Rutherford, who discovered nitrogen in 1772. Blacltk work also provided the first hint that air is a mixture of chemicals rather than a single element. Black’s discovery of heat capacity enabled researchers to quantify different substances’ heat capacities. In 1871 Portuguese scientisr J. H. de Magellan coined the term ”specific heat” to refer to a particular substance’s heat capacity. it is now ltnown as specific heat capacity, the amount ofheat required to raise one gram of a substance by one degree Celsius at constant: pressure, Substances with higher specific heat capacities, such as water, can absorb or give off large amounts of heat while undergoing a relatively small change in temperature. Specific heat capacity is an important factor in calculating the results of chemical reactions involved in research and numerous industrial proceedings. Schuyler Crowther, lames Gerald. Selenium oft/lie industrial Revolution: jars/373 Blade/477165 Warn forty/7 Priestly. Henry Cavendish. London: Cresset l’ress, 1962. Donovan, Arthur L. Permian/51ml Chemistry/1'71 the Srcrzlslr Enlightenment: 1,776 Doctrine! and Discos/“cries qf'W/ilr’ianz Cullen [lflll/(ISQ’J/fl Blue/é. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1975. 22 ‘ Lives and Legacies; Scientists, [l/lrzr/Jr'mrrrz'cizrm, anal [m/emm‘r ...
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