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chapter1_basicdefinitions - THERMOD YNAMICS Basic...

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THERMODYNAMICS - Basic definitions 1. Svstem: A region of space or a quantity of material set aside for investigation. a. closed svstem b. open svstem there is no mass exchange with surroundings (see Fig. 1.1) but there can be energy exchange (heat and work) there is mass exchanQe with the surroundings (see Fig. 1.2) and there can be energy exchange (heat and work) 2. Sur roundinzs: Everything that has not been set aside for investigation. ex.: an isolated system is one that does not interact with its surroundings 3. Worki nQ Medium: The material that enters into the energy and mass exchange. 4. Characteristic, or State of the System: The condition or status of a system as described by area, length, volume, mass, pressure, temperature, etc. 5. Property: Any quantity that is measurably observable, or reproducible. Depends only on the state of the system and not on the manner in which that state was achieved. a. intensive property b. extensive property independent of quantity present e.g., temperature, pressure depends on amount (an additive property) e.g., mass, volume 6. Phase: A region of space that is homogeneous in chemical composition and physical structure. 7. Equilibrium: Themodynamic Equilibrium = Means that a system is in mechanical, thermal. and chemical eauilibrium Quasi-equilibrium: The departure from equilibrium is infinitesimal.
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