Gas_power_systems - ,A‘gguml. /. EnE/IM fi‘ré/Lwa :74...

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Unformatted text preview: ,A‘gguml. /. EnE/IM fi‘ré/Lwa :74 CL 010554 ”‘ I‘VT—fiEVVLfi/u/y wet/@9741. *‘ use (it LAW “AN CKLA 2,, [lord (zquw W)57m§€m3 '" M W 754% m/Obtf w fmweim't 191: km sfeap% 030M. WMWMW- ‘7? ?‘V&MNM(-tmsfiak€s) ’ of Air {‘5 W wmmfi H E ~ Meal cam ( '7)“: R77 . "‘7 CUMSW Fflfi fit wot/{MM ¥ , %m3‘@5,.orffiw\{m¢ulw i ‘ Wwfcé 29' 914 . w ,.,ch,8 +£25.01, +50%,“ -,+>, 8m; .+ q 3:320 . rSW; r“? GVMQS '5 * WW WWW 0% ’. " J44 chmgrs ‘ E%b€€“% Y‘ COM am“ My“; T 2’ A 7 z V 3 L JV) 43c; 3' . 3 ' E E 3 A» we" ‘ f 4’ Cavka (if: (53 www.mWwwa-‘W’ a: ‘2 :2, WHEN. “ FAQ, L u 1w" M' W 17;“ w :9” “M iv TH J? W m m, We C cl: 083.9,: 0 Bum Lows «SE h mg». 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(hr: ' Flcmpcralurc is 300 K and the pressure is 0.1 MPa. The prassurc ratio for [he conslam-volumc pan of the healing Epmcess is LS: I. The volume ratio form: conslanl pressure pm chin: healing process is 1.2: l. Dcicrmine (3)111: filhcrmal efficiency and (b) the mean en’cctiv: pressurc‘ in MP3. EWLUHON EKnawn: An air-smndard dual cycle is cxccuzcd in a piston-cylinder assembly. Condiliuns are known al the ‘ beginning of ma compression process. and necessary volume and pressure ratios am specified. 1 E'Flnd: Dclcrmin: lhc lhcrmal efficiency and (he: mcp. in MP3. } Sellemau‘c and Given Dara: “mew— Hiuri 59.3 Otto, Nikolaus August Inventor of Four—Stroke internal (Zonabusuon_Engnie 1832—1891 Life and War/e Nikolaus August Otto designed, con structed, and marketed the first success— ful four—stroke internal combustion engine. Otto was born on June 10, 1832, in Holzhauzen, Germany, the son of a farmer. The details of his early life are unknown. At age 16 he left school and worked at a mer— chant’s office, never obtaining any formal higher education. in 1861 Otto became interested in the first coal—gas engine, developed the previous year by the Belgian steam’engine manufacturer jean Lenoir. The engine, a horizontal, double‘acting single—cylinder machine, was inefficient and tended to overheat, but nevertheless achieved a modest commercial success. In 1864 Otto formed a company with industrialist Eugen Langen and began marketing gas—powered engines that represented modifications of Lenoir’s design. in a competition with 14 other gas—powered engines at the 1867 Paris Exhibition, Otto’s engine won first prize. It won because of its efficiency, despite being large, heavy, and noisy. Otto opened a new factory near Cologne, Germany, in 1869 to accommodate the flood of orders. Joined by talented engi— neers Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in 1872, the business flourished. In 1876 Otto introduced a radically differ— ent engine. This quiet, efficient machine had a horizontal cylinder, conventional piston, connecting rod, and flywheel; it was single— acting and utilized a four—stroke cycle. The engine’s cycle consisted of four steps: as the piston moved outward the fuel (coal gas) and air were drawn into the cylinder; as the piston moved inward the fuel—air mixture was com— pressed and ignited by a spark; the ignition ‘ drove the piston outward for the third stroke; and as the piston moved inward again, the For Further Reading: waste gases were forced out an exhaust valve. Then the cycle repeated. Otto’s four-stroke engine sold extremely well. However, in 1886 his competitors unearthed an obscure pamphlet written in 1862 by Frenchman Alphonse Beau de Rochas describing the four—stroke cycle. This finding invalidated Otto’s patent, he lost exclusive rights to sell four—stroke engines, and s2 es dropped because of competition. Otto died on January 26, 1891, in Cologne. Legacy Otto’s engine created gas—based industrial power and made gas—powered vehicles possible. It is the basis of four—stroke internal— combustion engines of modern technology. Otto’s earliest engines were used imme— diately in numerous industries, powering pumps, sewing machines, printing presses, lathes, looms, and saws. These engines were limited to towns because they required a gas supply and to stationary settings because they were loud and heavy. in 1882 Otto’s engineers, Daimler and Maybach, left his company and developed the first engine that ran on gasoline, or petrol. They added a carburetor to vaporize the gaso— line, which ignited upon insertion of a red’hot metal bar. Their engines were lighter and more efficient than even Otto’s improved engines of 1876, and they were the first to be used in automobiles. Daimler and Maybach built a motorcycle in 1885 and an automobile in 1886; both ran on four—stroke internal combustion engines pow— ered by gasoline. Karl Benz, a German auto— mobile pioneer, replaced two—stroke engines with engines built by Daimler and Maybach, and then introduced electric ignition, which became the standard. in the 18903 RUDOLF DIESEL developed an engine that used cheaper fuel and ignited with the heat produced by compression rather than with electrical assistance. The resultant high pressures required the use of heavy metal to construct the engines, which were (and are) used predominantly in large vehicles such as trucks, buses, and ships. As the early twentieth century progressed, continually improved internal combustion Ganesan, V. Internle Cami/union Engines. New York: McGraw—Hill, 1996. Heywood, John B. Internal Combustion Engine Panamanian. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988. Stone, Richard. [nm‘oductiarr to Internal szr’mstinn Engines. New York: Macmillan, 1992. engines were built to power automobiles, trac— tors, trucks, ships, dirigibles, and airplanes, as well as various large industrial machines and rel; atively small appliances, such as lawnmowers. Schuyler WORLD EVENTS Otto’s LIFE Napoleonic Wars 1805—15 in Europe 1 1852 Nikolaus Otto is born 1848 Otto leaves School 1 at age 16; he begins working at merchant’s office jean Lenoir intro- duces first coal-gas powered engine United States 1861—65 Civil Will" 1864 I Otto forms company to market modified gas-powered engines 1867 Otto’s engine wins first prize at Paris Exhibition 1869 Otto opens new factory to accommodate orders Germany is united Otto recruits Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach Otto introduces l fourvstroke engine Otto’s patent is l revoked 1 8‘9 1, Otto dies Spanish—American 1898 War Liver and Legacies: Scientists, Mathematicians, am! Inventors ' 157 Diesel, Rudolf Invento of Diesel Engine H 13 HI) 0 1. 0'1 0': \Ji 1. .1. WORLD Evuvrs Dissers LIFE Napoleonic Wars 1803~ 15 in Europe 1 Rudolf Diesel is born Diesel begins to 18 58 1 8:70 ‘ obtain engineering education Germany is united 18,71 1 i 1880 Diesel works in refrigeration and studies engines Diesel decides to build heat engine Diesel builds efficient compression—ignition 1890 1893 engine Spanish—American 1898 War Diesel founds engine-manufacturing company 1913 Diesel dies World War 1 1914—18 Lifi) and War/e Rudolf Diesel invented the fourwstroke internal—combustion Diesel engine, which powers all types of heavy-duty transport equipment and vehicles. Diesel was born on March 18, 1858, in Paris, to German parents. During his early years in Paris he frequented the Museum of Arts and Crafts and was fascinated by the dis— play of loseph Cugnot’s steam‘propelled cat— riage, designed in 1769. in 1870 Diesel’s family moved to London to escape the Franco~German \X’ar, and he was sent to Augsburg, Germany, to continue his education. Excelling in engineering, he obtained a scholarship to attend Munich’s technical college, where he studied under Carl von Linde, a pioneer in refrigeration technol— ogy. From von Linde he learned thermody- namics and the theory of heat engines. From 1880 to 1890 Diesel worked at von Linde’s refrigeration firm in Paris; his first two patents were for ice—making machines. He spent his spare hours researching engines. In 1890 he. decided to try to design a highly effi— cient internal—combustion engine by applying the principle of thermodynamics stating that work is performed as heat flows from a high to a low temperature state. Such an engine would have to operate in a wide temperature range, which would require that the air within the cylinder be greatly compressed (because the temperature of air depends on its pressure). Diesel built his first engine in 1893. It uti— lized the basic four~stroke cycle introduced by German inventor NIKOLAUS Aucusr Orro in 1876, but differed from the Otto engine in not requiring a spark for ignition. 1n Diesel’s engine, air is drawn into the cylinder and compressed, raising its temperature to nearly 600°C. Then a fine spray or" fuel is injected into the cylinder, the fuel ignites because of the high temperature of the air, and the ignition powers the resulting power stroke. A final exhaust Stroke removes the burned fuel, and then the cycle repeats. The engine ran on a type of refined mineral oil. In 1899 Diesel established a company in Augsburg to manufacture and market his engines, which were an immediate commercial success. On September 29, 1913, Diesel apparently drowned after vanishing from a steamer en route to London. His body was never found. For Further Reading: Legacy he Diesel engine proved to be an energy- efficient alternative to other internal— combustion engines and continues to be used in a variety of vehicles and power generators. Rudolf Diesel’s invention embodied both advantages and disadvantages of other success— ful engines of the time. It could run on lower- cost fuels and was more efficient, and its lack of electrical ignition combined with its non- explosive fuel reduced the risk of accidental fire. However it was heavy, because it had to be made with heavy~gauge metals to withstand high pressures, and it was noisy. It was also rel— atively expensive to manufacture. The development of the Diesel engine and its applications continued throughout the twentieth century. It was used to power sub= marines during World War 1 alter undergoing improvements introduced primarily by German engineer Karl Bosch. Locomotives, streetcars, and large ships were soon running on Diesel engines. Further design alterations during the 19305 adapted it for use in small e boats, and later contributions by British designers Cedric Dicksee and Harry Ricardo moved it into trucks, buses, and tractors. By the 1950s, most ships and many railways were Diesel—powered, and by the 19805, some auto” mobiles had Diesel engines. Also, at mid— century, many coal—burning boilers and water— flow alternators had been replaced by Diesel engines in the generation of electricity. Schuyler Dark, Harris E. Auto Engines ofTomarraw. Bloomington: indiana University Press, 1975. Moon, John Frederick. Racing/Jim! and #13 Diesel Engine. London: Priory Press, 1974. Nitske, Robert W. Rudolj‘DicscL' Pioneer (fiber Age ofl’nwcr. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965. 60 ‘ Lives and Legacies: Scientists, [Mathematicians and [mentors The dominant car—engine combustion . process of the last century, the Otto cycle, is spawning variants—wand, in some instances, entirely new ignition schemes. By Paul Sharke, Associate Editor SAN AUTOMOBILE MOVER, the Otto cycle engine seems bound for extinction, its critics say. Mean~ while, backers of alternative systems proclaim fuel cells, diesel engines, and hybrids as the path to clean, ef‘ ficient mobility. In its own way, however, the ubiquitous Otto cycle enr gine thumps along another trail to survival. It follows a course of incremental refinement, begun a century ago. Here is a sampling of what a few manufacmrers and re— searchers have been up to lately with regard to the lowly spark. ignition engine. Engineers at Sweden’s Saab Automobile SA recently un~ wrapped a concept they call the SVC engine, with claims that it will reduce fuel use by 30 percent compared with a larger, naturally aspirated engine of similar output. The Saab variable compression engine sprang from seeds germinated back in the early 19805, according to a Saab spokesman, Kevin Smith. By the end of the decade, a patent application had been submitted, and a prototype was on the way to completion. By the mid-49903, a sec— ond experimental engine was ready for testing, Ever since Nicolaus Otto demonstrated the first work— ing four—stroke engine in 1876, engineers have been struggling to come up with ways to sidestep a fiindamen— tal limitation of an otherwise stellar design. The recipro— cating engine is capable of generating high pressure with reliable sealing, but the volume swept out by the piston has had to remain fixed, Thus, cal-makers have had to build engines tuned to work most efficiently during pe— riods of high loading. A car, though, does not spend all its time climbing hills or racing away from a stop. Much of the time the engine The SVC engine at 14:1 sips fuei (left). Gas it (right). and intake air jumps by 40 psi. Compression ratio drops to 8:1. 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Gas_power_systems - ,A‘gguml. /. EnE/IM fi‘ré/Lwa :74...

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