Chap7[1] - Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System...

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Osteology- study of bone Skeletal system: bones, cartilage, and ligaments Functions of the Skeleton 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Electrolyte balance 5. Acid-base balance 6. Blood formation Bone/ Osseous tissue CT with matrix hardened by deposition of calcium phosphate Composition of bone: blood, bone marrow, cartilage, adipose tissue, nervous tissue, and fibrous CT Mineralization/ Calcification- hardening process Shapes of Bones 1. Long- serve as rigid levers that are acted upon skeletal muscles for movement 2. Short- limited motion but glide across another to enable bending in multiple directions 3. Flat- enclose and protect soft organs and provide surfaces for muscle attachment 4. Irregular Features of bones Long bone composed of compact (dense) bone Compact bone enclose medullary cavity/marrow cavity containing bone marrow Spongy (cancellous) bone- occupies ends of bone and enclosed by more durable compact bone Diaphysis- shaft/ provides leverage Epiphysis- expanded head/ provides added surface area for attachment of tendon and ligaments Nutrient foramina- minute holes in bone that allows entry of blood vessel Periosteum- sheath covering bone Perforating (Sharpey) fibers- collagen fibers penetrating bone matrix/ provide strong attachment and continuity from muscle to tendon to bone Endosteum- reticular CT and osteogenic cells giving rise to other bone cells lining internal surface of a bone Epiphysis plate- hyaline cartilage separating marrow spaces of epiphysis and diaphysis and place for elongation Diploe- spongy layer in cranium/ absorb impact or blow to head Histology of Osseous Tissue Bone Cells 1. Osteogenic cells- stem cells that develop from fibroblasts and give rise to other bone cells located in endosteum, inner layer of eriostemon, and in central canals 2. Osteoblasts- bone forming cells, synthesize soft organic matter of bone matrix, multiple through stress & fractures 3. Osteocytes- former osteoblast trapped in lacunae connected by canaliculi 4. Osteoclasts- bone dissolving cell found on surface that reside in resorption bays (Howship lacunae) Matrix Inorganic matter- 85% hydroxyapatite Composite- combination of 2 basic structural materials (bone classification) Rickets- soft bones bend under body’s weight and become deformed Osteogenesis imperfecta/brittle bone disease- brittleness of bone from lack of protein Compact Bone Concentric lamellae- layers of matrix around central (haversian/osteonic) canal
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Chap7[1] - Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System...

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