08 bio lecture - Lecture notes Disaccharide ex...

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9/3/08 Lecture notes Disaccharide- ex Sucrose…consists of 2 monosaccharide molecules (Glucose and Fructose)…creates table sugar Lactose…another disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose How does a plant for example go about manufacturing glucose? Glycosidic linkage (or bond)- hooks together 2 monosaccharides into a disaccharide…. 2 processes by which this happens… one is dehydration synthesis and the other is condensation…the prefix glyco means sweet…aka sugar is involved…before your body can put the sugar into your bloodstream it needs to reverse the process which requires that they put the water back in…. that’s called hydrolysis…. breaking down a big molecule into 2 molecules through the addition of a water molecule Structural Isomers- molecules that have the same molecular formula but different molecular structures Lactose intolerance...Lactose glucose + galactose…Needs lactase to catalyze the reaction. Enzymes are proteins and their job is to control the rate of chemical reactions in your body Main purpose of polysaccharides is as food storage (energy storage)…starch is a source of food storage in plants…think iodine on a potatoes…. in humans we have glycogen (animal starch) Polysaccharide that has structural functions is…Chitin (present in exoskeletons) Lipids—hydrophobic (they don’t mix with water)- Functions of lipids are :energy storage… If your burn 1 gram of carbs you get 4 kilocal/ gram----- gram of fat= 9 kilocal/gram---structural Wax on plants helps to keep the water in…example of lipids structural properties Triglyceride= neutral lipid=fat 9/5/08 Notes Linoleic Acid (in flax oil) and Arachidonic Acid (peanut oil)- 2 fatty acids you must get out of your diet…They are essential fatty acids Phospholipid- glycerol backbone with fatty acids…3 rd fatty acid not attached Phospholipid Bi-layer- going in opposite directions Sterols consist of ring shaped molecules Cholesterol, the most widespread animal steroid- the basic kind of sterol One of the molecules that your body can also make…about 90 +% you can make on your own Testosterone and Estradiol from cholesterol Testosterone is an anabolic steroid- builds muscle mass Cortisone-used to reduce inflammation Retinol- vision pigment All proteins are linear sequences of amino acids- amino acid is the monomer…long
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