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Unformatted text preview: QuickTimeTM and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Dr. Heather Dickinson-Anson (949)824-8949, Office # 1205, McGaugh Hall email : anson@uci.edu Office Hours: MWF11-11:50 or by appointment Course Website: through eee.uci.edu Text: An Intro to Brain & Behavior by Kolb & Wishaw (2nd ed) Organization & function of the nervous system, especially the role of the brain in organizing behavior. Develop critical thinking skills about biopsychological claims. 100 billion neurons 100 trillion connections between them Enormous complexity During course we will emphasize... Clinical implications Learning from damage & research to treat damaged brains Evolutionary perspective QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Functional brain-imaging techniques View the brain in action QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Eat 3 meals a day!! QuickTimeTM and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1.Thecaudateis thetam ing ce r. nte 1. Pre frontal lobotom s area ie good thing!! Jose Delgado & the Raging Bull Electrical stimulation of caudate stopped charging bull Interpretation? Caudate = "taming center" Alternative simpler interpretations Confusion Dizziness Blindness nausea Becky the Chimp that Calmed down after a Prefrontal Lobotomy QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Walter Freeman, 1946 His Mission? "Severing the Fibers of a sick mind" Performed 3500 sx's over 20 yrs. Recommended Sx for any pt. institutionalized for > 2 years Egas Moniz, 1935 Performed multiple sx's shot by lobotomized pt 1940 & 1954:40,000-50,000 pt's = lobotomies QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Lobotom Proce y durebase on a S d ingle Obse rvation w/ C ps!!! him Thorough assessment of effects was not conducted Effect of sx was analyzed by the very surgeons who performed them = not objective. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Often judged pt. as improved if they were simply more manageable Frances Farmer, movie star & pro-communist Political activist; 1948=lobotomy Lobotomies therapeutic effects Side Effects: Amorality Impulsiveness Emotionally blunted Epilepsy Incontinence Intellectual deterioration Violent behavior And much, much more! Behavior = Product of Interactions between 3 Factors QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Chordates show up ~ 450 million years ago ~425 million years ago = Vertebrates Comparison of Animal Brains Weight (g) Sperm Whale Fin Whale Orca Elephant Bottle-nosed Dolphin Human Cow Chimpanzee Sheep Mouse Shrew 7,820 6,930 5,620 5,000 1,600 1,500 500 400 100 0.5 0.25 Shrew Human Mouse Chimpanzee Bottle-nosed Dolphin Sheep Elephant Orca Cow Sperm Whale Fin Whale Brain/Body (%) 3.33 2.10 2.08 0.95 0.94 0.25 0.20 0.09 0.08 0.02 0.01 Brain S & Ge r ize nde Brain of a Ge nius Santa Barbara, 1933 Evolution of more Complex Regions is what Matters Human brain = increased in size Increase in cerebrum Note structures of one species usually found in brains of related species QuickTimeTM and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Frontal/ coronal coronal Horizontal QuickTimeTM and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Sagittal Fig 2.4 CAUDAL ROSTRAL SEE TABLE 2-1 PG 39 FOR TERMS QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. 2 DIVISIONS Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerves outside brain & spinal cord Spinal nerves Cranial nerves Autonomic NS Vegetative functions (Internal organs) Sensory info to CNS Motor signals from CNS Somatic NS Interacts w/ external environment Sensory info (skin, muscles, eyes, ears etc) to CNS Motor signals from CNS to muscles Spinal Nerves info to & from brain via spinal cord Cranial Nerves (12) link brain to parts of head & some internal organs via brainstem QuickTimeTM and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeTM and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 12 pairs NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Autonomic NS Somatic NS Sympathetic NS Expends energy "Fight-or-Flight" (SCARED) Parasympathetic NS Conserves energy Rest & Digest (PEACEFUL) Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous Systems control many of the same organs work in opposition to each other to regulate physiology/internal environment of body Fig. 2.29 Two Principles of Nervous System Function Multiple systems interact to produce output/effect Balance between opposing influences is common The Central Nervous System Everything Encased in Bone QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. See fig 1.2 in your book Fig 2-27 Different segments in charge of different body regions Cervical region = neck Thoracic Region = chest, are attached to ribs Lumbar = small of back Sacral = lower back, attaches to pelvis S gre e gation be e se twe n nsory input and m otor output QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. See fig 2.28 in your book Primary Functions of Brain Produce behavior Create a sensory reality Integrate information from different experiences & use to guide behavior Require different systems to mediate them (Sensory, Motor, Complex integration) QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. General Surface Features 2 Cerebral hemispheres Sulci (sulcus): grooves/ fissures Gyri (gyrus): outfoldings Cerebellum Internal Features White matter fibers w/ fatty covering Gray Matter - cell bodies & capillaries Ventricles - spaces filled with fluid Ventricles Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Shock absorption Maintenance functions (waste products) Fig 2.9 QuickTimeTM and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. CSF circulates through ventricular system Block flow early, expansion of skull as ventricles expand = brain damage/death QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. CORPUS COLLOSUM 200 million fibers cross Hindbrain - oldest & most primitive Midbrain - short strip at top of hindbrain Forebrain - all structures above midbrain QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. Hindbrain Fig 2.15 Medulla: Controls basic vital functions Cerebellum: Coordinates complex movements Pons: Key bridge between cerebellum & rest of brain. Midbrain Relay stations for some sensory information Orienting behavior Motor function BRAI NS TEM Medulla + Pons + Midbrain + diencephalon QuickTimeTM and a Photo JPEG decompressor are needed to see this picture. See fig 2.15 your book The Forebrain grate inform s ation and issue s I nte com ands m sponsiblefor highe ve r-le l Re inform ation proce ssing Mind? ve d r Morede lope in highe ve brate rte s ...
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