Chem_110_Fall_Booker_Lec2 - Structure of the Atom (Early...

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Structure of the Atom (Early Studies) The ancient Greeks were the first to postulate that matter consists of indivisible constituents Later it was realized that the atom consisted of charged entities. Early 1900s CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes) JJ Thompson 1. Rays are same no matter what material is used to generate them 2. Rays are a stream of negatively charged particles. Charge of electron determined by Milliken
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Structure of the Atom (Studies of Radioactivity) Matter is composed of negative, positive, and neutral material
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Structure of the Atom (Plum Pudding Model) J. J. Thompson postulated that the atom consisted of a uniform positive sphere of matter in which electrons were embedded.
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Structure of the Atom (Scattering of α Particles) Plum Pudding Model not consistent with experimental observations
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Structure of the Atom (Rutherford’s Nuclear Model) Rutherford posits that the atom is mainly empty and contains a small but extremely dense region of positive charge The Nucleus!
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Modern View of Atom Atom is almost entirely empty space 1 nm = 10 -9 m = 10 Å Å = angstrom = 10 -10 m Atom Diameter = 0.1-0.5 nm Nuclear Diameter = 10 -5 nm Ratio of nuclear size to atomic radius: 10 -4 Carbon Atom Diameter = 0.154
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Modern View of the Atom (Components of the Atoms) mass charge (a.m.u.) (a.u.) proton ( p ) 1.0073 + 1 electron ( e ) 5.486 x 10 -4 1 neutron ( n ) 1.0087 0
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Isotopes Number of protons = atomic number
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This note was uploaded on 09/29/2008 for the course CHEM 110 taught by Professor Hofmann,brucerob during the Fall '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Chem_110_Fall_Booker_Lec2 - Structure of the Atom (Early...

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