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Unformatted text preview: LEARN I NG OBJECT IVES – Ch 1 • List and describe the six kingdoms of living things. 1. Archaea- the kingdom of prokaryotes (simplest cells that do not have nuclei) e.g. methanogen- manufactures methane result of metabolic activity 2. Bacteria- also a prokaryotic kingdom- able to convert light chemical energy e.g. purple sulfer bacteria 3. Protista Most of the unicellular eukaryotes(those whose cells contain a nucleus) are grouped into this kingdom e.g. algae 4. Fungi kingdom contains nonphotosynthetic multicellular organisms that digest their food externally e.g.mushrooms 5. Plantae kingdom contains photosynthetic multicellular organisms that are terrestrial e.g. flowering plant 6. Animalia nonphotosynthetic multicellular organisms that digest food internally e.g humans, ram • Understand the five properties shared by all living things. 1. Cellular organization-One or more cells-All cells are able to grow and reproduce 2. Metabolism-Use energy- moving, thinking, growing-Captured from sunlight by plants and algae- Energy that powers our lives, we extract it from plants or plant eating animals. - Transfer of energy from one form to another in cells is an example of metabolism- ALL organisms transfer energy from one place to another within cells using special energy- carrying molecules called ATP 3. Homeostasis-Maintaining stable internal conditions- to help complex processes be better coordinated. -Organisms act to keep their interior conditions constant 4. Growth and Reproduction-All living things grow and reproduce-Bacteria increase in size and split in two- More complex organisms grow by increasing the number of cells and reproduce sexually. 5. Heredity- a genetic system that is based on the replicat ion and duplication of a long molecule, DNA.-Each set of inst ructions within the DNA is called a gene - Together the genes determ ine what the organism will be like All living things possess cells that carry out metabolism, maintain stable internal condit ions, reproduce themselves, and use DNA to t ransm it hereditary information to offspring. • Understand the levels of hierarchical organization of the living world. Cellular Level 1. Molecules- Atoms that are joined together in complex clusters 2. Organelles- tiny compartments within cells, w/ complex molecules 3. Cells- where organelles and other elements are assembled, smallest level of organization that can be considered alive. Organismal Level 1. Tissues- groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit 2. Organs- tissues are grouped into organs, which are body structures composed of several different tissues grouped together in a structural and functional unit. 3. Organ Sysyems- 3 rd level or organization, organs are grouped into organ systems....
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2008 for the course BIO 49935 taught by Professor Jasper during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '08