Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Psychology of Personality (Psych 507)...

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Psychology of Personality (Psych 507) Exam # 1 Study Guide I. Chapter 1: Introduction to Personality a. Personality: the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, the intrapsychic, physical, and social environments. b. Psychological traits: characteristics that describe ways in which people are different from each other c. Psychological mechanisms: like traits except refer to processes of personality, most have three essential ingredients: inputs, decision rules, and outputs. i. Ex. Extraverted people may look for opportunities to interact with others d. What are the three levels of analysis in personality psychology? i. Like all others (the human nature) = universals ii. Like some others (the level of individual and group differences) = particulars iii. Like no others (the individual uniqueness level) = uniqueness e. Studies of individual debate i. Nomothetic research: typically involves statistical comparisons of individuals or groups, requiring samples of subjects on which to conduct research ii. Idiographic research: typically focuses on a single subject, trying to observe general principles that are manifest in a single life over time f. Domain of knowledge: a specialty area of science and scholarship in which psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspects of human nature g. In each domain: i. Develop common methods for asking questions ii. Have accumulated a foundation of known facts iii. Develop theoretical explanations iv. Have developed theoretical explanations which is account for what is known about personality from the perspective of each domain h. What are the six domains of knowledge? Why is it important for us to look at each of these different perspectives? i. Dispositional: aim to describe people, explain their behavior, and predict their future behavior ii. Biological: humans are collections of biological systems, and these systems provide building blocks for behavior, thought, and emotion
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iii. Intrapsychic: deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside conscious awareness iv. Cognitive-experiential: focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others v. Social and cultural: assumption that personality affects, and is affected by, cultural and social contexts vi. Adjustment: personality plays key role in how we adapt, cope, and adjust to events in daily life i. Scientific theories serve three important purposes. What are they? i. Provides a guide for researchers ii. Organizes known findings iii. Makes predictions j. How can theories help us understand personality? i.
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This note was uploaded on 09/30/2008 for the course PSY 507 taught by Professor Hayden during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Exam 1 Study Guide - Psychology of Personality (Psych 507)...

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