Ch10_notes_07

Ch10_notes_07 - L18: Ch. 10 Acids and Bases Definitions,...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–17. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
L18: Ch. 10 Acids and Bases Definitions, classification, interaction with water Strong and weak acids and bases Equilibrium involving weak acids and bases pH scale Salts of weak acids and bases Buffer solutions and buffer capacity Special Topics: superacids (Prof. Olah's Nobel Prize, 1994)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Definitions of Acids and Bases 1. Arrhenius (19th century): Acids produce H + in solution, bases produce OH ion. HCl + H 2 O <−> Cl + H 3 O + NaOH <-> Na + + OH - 2. Brønsted-Lowry (1923): Acids are H + donors, bases are proton acceptors. OH - + H + <-> H 2 O NH 3 + H 2 O <- > NH 4 + + OH - NH 3 + HCl <- > NH 4 Cl
Background image of page 2
Strong and weak acids HA <-> H + + A - Strong acids: Weak acids: Strong acid <-> weak conjugate base Weak acid <-> strong conjugate base
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Acids and Bases insert link: acid bases, section 16.2, sections 3-6 Chemistry : Chapter 16 : Tutorials
Background image of page 4
Lewis Acids and Bases • Lewis Acid: electron pair acceptor • Lewis Base: electron pair donor Electron-deficient systems: AlCl 3 , BF 3 , SbF 5 , AsF 5
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs HA( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) <−> H 3 O + ( aq ) + A ( aq ) •conjugate base: everything that remains of the acid molecule after a proton is lost. •conjugate acid: formed when the proton is transferred to the base.
Background image of page 6
Strong acid: more ions Weak acid: less ions 0.1 M HCl 0.1M CH 3 COOH 0.1 M NaOH 0.1 M NH 3 Insert link: Relative strengths of acids and oxoacids, 16.3 sections 3-5 Chemistry : Chapter 16 : Tutorials ) ( ) ( ) ( aq A aq H aq HA + + ] [ ] ][ [ HA A H K a + =
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Table of Acids by properties Strong HCl HBr HI H 2 SO 4 HNO 3 HClO 4 HClO 3 H 3 PO 4 Most strong acids are oxoacids . Polar H-X bond. Weak HF H 2 SO 3 HNO 2 HClO 2 HClO HBrO H 3 BO 3 CH 3 COOH C 6 H 5 OH Organic acids are weak acids. (Most are also oxo- acids )
Background image of page 8
1. Weak Lewis acids and bases 2. Metals as acids
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
L19:Autoionization of water H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - at 25C Thus [H + ] in pure water is 10 -7 M 1 proton per 10,000,000 water molecules 14 10 01 . 1 ] ][ [ + = = OH H K w Animation: 16.4 sections 1-2. http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/chemistry/gilbert/tutorials/ch16.htm
Background image of page 10
Acid strength: Quantitative description ) ( ) ( ) ( aq A aq H aq HA + + ] [ ] ][ [ HA A H K a + = Strong acids: K a ~ 10 2 -10 7 , completely ionized
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
) ( ) ( ) ( aq A aq H aq HA + + ] [ ] ][ [ HA A H K a + =
Background image of page 12
) ( ) ( ) ( 2 aq OH aq H aq O H + + 14 10 01 . 1 ] ][ [ + = = OH H K w ] log[ + = H pH ] log[ = OH pOH pH + pOH = -log[K w ]=14 @ 25 o C pH of neutral solution: pH = 7.0 @ 25 o C pH and pOH scales at 25°C
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
pH of Acid Rain: 4-5 At pH < 5 all fish in lakes die. ..
Background image of page 14
How to Make Red Cabbage pH Indicator http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/aa012803a.htm Red cabbage contains the pigment flavin (an anthocyanin). It is also found in apple skin, plums, poppies, cornflowers, and grapes. It is possible to determine the pH of a solution based on the color it turns the anthocyanin pigments in red cabbage juice. Greenish Yellow Blue- Green Blue Violet Purple Red Color 12 10 8 6 4 2 pH Determine pH of: water, baking soda, vinegar, lemon juice, antacids, detergents, ammonia, etc.
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Chop the cabbage into small pieces until you have about 2 cups of chopped cabbage. Place the cabbage in a large beaker or other glass container and add boiling water to cover the cabbage. Allow at least ten minutes for the color to leach out of
Background image of page 16
Image of page 17
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 09/30/2008 for the course CHEM 115BL taught by Professor Qin,reisler during the Spring '08 term at USC.

Page1 / 56

Ch10_notes_07 - L18: Ch. 10 Acids and Bases Definitions,...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 17. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online