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organizational behavior study notes 2

organizational behavior study notes 2 - Chapter 14...

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Chapter 14: Organizational culture : a cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behaviors, norms, and expectations shared by organizational members; a set of basic assumption shared by members of an organization. Core cultural characteristics: 1. Sensitivity to others 2. Interest in new ideas 3. Willingness to take risks 4. The values placed on people a. Toxic organization cultural: organizational cultures in which people feel that they are not valued. This type of culture tends to lose good employees and profit b. Healthy organizational culture: people feel that they are valued hence lower turnover rate. 1. Everyone in the organization is open and humble 2. People are held accountable and responsible for actions 3. People are free to take risks 4. Mistakes are tolerated 5. Integrity is unquestioned 6. Collaboration and integration between units 7. Courage and persistence is encouraged 5. Openness of available communication options 6. Friendliness and congeniality Strong culture: an organization in which there is widespread agreement with respect to the core elements of culture, making it possible for these factors to exert major influence on the way people behave. This type of culture is likely to be found in newer companies with fewer employees Weak culture: an organization in which there is limited agreement with respect to the core elements of culture, giving these factors little influence on the way people behave. Subcultures: cultures existing within parts of organizations rather than entirely through them Dominant culture: a distinctive overarching “personality” of an organization, the kind of culture in which we have been referring. An organization’s dominant culture reflects its core values, dominant perceptions that are generally shared throughout the organization. The role of culture in organizations: 1. Provide a sense of identity for members 2. Enhance commitment to the organization’s mission 3. Clarify an reinforces standards of behavior Competing values framework: a conceptualization of organizational culture that specifies that cultures of organizations differ with respect to two sets of opposite values: 1) value stability and discretion as opposed to stability order and control. 2) Valuing internal affairs as opposed to external environment. 1. Hierarchy culture: have internal focus and emphasize stability and control. Here most effective leaders are good coordinators of projects and emphasize and smooth running organization, often relying on formal rules and policies to do so. 2. Market culture: concern with stability but are external with their orientation. The core values emphasize competiveness and productivity, focusing on the bottom line results. 3. Clan culture: strong internal focus and a high degree of flexibility. Goals are highly shared by members, feel like an extended family.
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4. Adhocracy culture: flexible and pay great deal of attention to external environment. Absence of hierarchy.
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