ENGRI1110_Lect9_08 - A Million-Fold Bandwidth Increase 1012...

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A Million-Fold Bandwidth Increase 10 10 8 6 4 2 1 1850 1900 1950 2000 Bit Rate (Bits/sec) 1st Telephone Coax-60 VC Oscillating Needle Telegraph 3600 VC 108,000 VC Fiber Optic Systems 12
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Light and Waves Isaac Newton Light consists of small particles Christian Huygens Light consists of waves
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Waves Disturbance that travels through a medium in a given direction Medium does not travel along A series of peaks and valleys Wavelength Amplitude Frequency (f = c/ λ )
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Light and Waves Einstein showed that ether does not exist Ocean waves need water Sound waves need air No medium necessary for electromagnetic waves
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Light Interactions with Solids Light can be Absorbed Transmitted Reflected Transparent: no light absorption or reflection
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Refraction n i /n r = sin(r)/sin(i) i r
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Mirage Wikipedia
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Refractive Index n = velocity in vacuum/velocity in material 1.45 SiO 2 2.42 Diamond 1.30 Ice 1.33 Water 1.0003 Air n Material
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Reflectivity (Insulators) R = (n-1) 2 /(n+1) 2 Ice: 2% Glass: 6% Diamond: 17%
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Reflectivity (Metals)
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ENGRI1110_Lect9_08 - A Million-Fold Bandwidth Increase 1012...

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