freshman seminar

freshman seminar - Navigating the Way Out of Fossil Fuel...

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Navigating the Way Out of Fossil Fuel Dependence Peter V. Schwartz, Cal Poly Physics Dept. San Luis Obispo Energy Needs Resources Energy Balance Costs Variability Reduction Technological Fix Societal Adaptation Efficiency vs. Conservation Freshmen Seminar. Cal Poly, November 2, 2007 Appropriate Technology
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2005 Annual Energy Consumption: 15.46 TWh = 5.56 x 10 16 J average power = 1.76 Billion Watts Electricity 18% Natural Gas 29% 53% Petrol 2005 15.5 TWh ~ 1.5 Million Hair Dryers (4 Hair Dryers / person)
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Electricity 18% Natural Gas 29% 53% Petrol 2005 15.5 TWh 15% 33% 52% g a s D Aviation Res Res Com Com Ind Ind 2030 (BAU) 21.5 TWh 8% 43% 49% 2030 (FF) 13.0 TWh 13% Hydro 5% C 20% Nuke 48% NG 24% BM 38% Geo 17% Small hydro 14% wind solar 15% Rnw renew Hey, that’s not fossil free! www.fossilfreeby33.org How do you do that?
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Electricity Natural Gas Petrol 15% 33% 52% Aviation Ind Ind 2030 (BAU) 21.5 TWh 8% 43% 49% 2030 (FF) 13.0 TWh Aviation Ind Ind g a s D 40% g a s D Res Res Com Com Res Res Com Com 30% 15 TWh renew Solar Therm 1.0 TWh 5.6 TWh 69.3% fossil free?
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Resources of Renewable Electricity Wind Offshore Biomass MSW Rooftop PV Wind On land Wave Power Solar Thermal Electric Energy production potential 2030 electricity demand 2030 total energy demand
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Resources of Renewable Electricity Wind Offshore Energy production potential Biomass MSW Rooftop PV Wind On land Wave Power Solar Thermal Electric 2030 electricity demand 2030 total energy demand
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Resources of Renewable Electricity Wind Offshore Energy production potential Biomass MSW Rooftop PV Wind On land Wave Power Solar Thermal Electric 2030 electricity 2030 total energy
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Resources of Renewable Electricity Wind Offshore Energy production potential Biomass MSW Rooftop PV Wind On land Wave Power Solar Thermal Electric 2030 electricity 2030 total energy Solar Thermal Electric, 100% of electrical needs 0.2% of Santa Barbara County surface area 45 times total electricity demand
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Wind Speed Wind Power Potential
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Wave Power Potential
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www.cre8tivenergy.com Efficiency Diesel Brayton Cycle What is the efficiency of the gasoline engine? Power Output Gasoline
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Tesla Roadster (electric) Lotus Elise (gasoline) Top Speed 130 mph 150 mph 0-60 mph 4 s 4.9 s Weight 2500 lbs 1984 lbs Cost $92,000 $46,270 Range 200 mi 270 mi Efficiency 133 Wh/km 26 mpg 7.5 km/kWh
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Tesla Roadster (electric) Lotus Elise (gasoline) Efficiency 7.5 km/kWh 26 mpg 26 mpg 33.7 kWh / gallon 1.609 km/mile = 1.24 km / kWh = 6.06 ! .92 .80 = 7.0 (50%) = 3.5 Extraction & refining losses Line losses NG to electricity 86% * 90% = Battery Motor 12.7% Engine and Transmission Electric Efficiency ICE Efficiency (35%) = 2.45 77.4%
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Efficiency 7.5 km/kWh 26 mpg = 1.24 km / kWh 77.4% 12.7% Tesla Roadster (electric) Lotus Elise (gasoline) Top Speed 130 mph 150 mph 0-60 mph 4 s 4.9 s Weight 2500 lbs 1984 lbs Cost $92,000 $46,270 Range 200 mi 270 mi Engine Efficiency Cost < 1.6 cents/km > 8.4 cents/km 0
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Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benfits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels J. Hill, E. Nelson, D. Tilman, S. Polasky, Tiffany, PNAS, June 2, 2006 Ethanol production efficiency = 3,632 li ha ha 10 4 m 2 5.86 kWh li = 21.3 kWh / m 2 Solar Energy Efficiency = 20% NREL annual data for Fresno = 1900 kWh / m 2 = 380 kWh / m 2
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Refine Transportation Farm Fertilizers Pesticides Fossil Fuel 1 MJ Corn Ethanol Energy from the Sun (output) 20% gain 0.8 MJ agricultural and industrial Energy input
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freshman seminar - Navigating the Way Out of Fossil Fuel...

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