Lab #11 Body Comp Lab_V23.doc

Lab #11 Body Comp Lab_V23.doc - BIO 104 BIOLOGY OF EXERCISE...

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Figure 2. Skinfold site locations. BIO 104 B IOLOGY OF E XERCISE L ABORATORY #11 P AGE 1 BIO 104 L ABORATORY #11 E STIMATING B ODY C OMPOSITION I NTRODUCTION To determine the composition of the body, one needs to be able to determine the amount of fat tissue, water, protein, and carbohydrate. The measurement of many of these basic constituents and components of the body involves elaborate and expensive equipment, and methods that are highly technical. As a result, attempts have been made to develop simplified and indirect approaches that approximate the actual measurement of these various components. In this lab experience you will estimate body composition using skinfold measurements and girth measurements. You will also calculate body mass index, a crude, but popular assessment of body fatness. S KINFOLD M EASUREMENTS Simple anthropometric procedures estimate body fatness with reasonable accurancy. The most common of these procedures uses skinfold measurements. The rationale for using skinfolds to estimate total body fat comes from the close relationships among three factors: (a) fat in adipose tissue deposits directly beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat), (b) internal fat, and (c) body density. T HE C ALIPER The caliper works on the same principle as a micrometer used to measure distance between two points. The pincer jaws exert a constant tension of 10 g•mm -2 at the point of contact with the double layer of skin plus subcutaneous tissue. The caliper dial indicates skinfold thickness in millimeters. Measuring skinfold thickness requires grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat firmly with the thumb and forefingers, pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue following the natural contour of the skinfold. The skinfold is recorded within two seconds after applying the full force of the caliper. This time limitation avoids excessive skinfold compression when taking the measurement. S ITES The most common skinfold sites include triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, and upper thigh . An average of three measurements made at each site on the right side of the body with the subject standing represents the skinfold score. Figure 2 shows the anatomic location for five of the most commonly measured skinfold sites: Triceps : Vertical fold at the posterior midline of the upper arm, halfway between the tip of the shoulder and tip of the elbow; elbow remains in an extended, relaxed position. Subscapular : Oblique fold just below the bottom tip of the scapula. Suprailiac (iliac crest): Slightly oblique fold just above the hip bone (crest of ileum); the fold follows the natural diagonal line. Abdominal : Vertical fold 1 inch to the right of the umbilicus. Thigh : Vertical fold at the midline of the thigh, two-thirds the distance from the middle of the patella (knee cap) to the hip.
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BIO 104 B IOLOGY OF E XERCISE L ABORATORY #11 P AGE 2 Three other sites are also commonly measured: Chest : Diagonal fold (with its long axis directed towards the nipple) on the anterior axillary fold as high as possible.
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  • Spring '17
  • Antony Scalia
  • Biology, Body mass index, body fat percentage, body mass

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