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Psychopharmacology - Slide 1 Psychopharmacology The study...

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Slide 1 Psychopharmacology The study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system and behavior ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 2 Psychopharmacology Drug effects Sites of action • Pharmacokinetics ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 3 Routes of administration Intravenous injection (IV) Intraperitoneal injection (IP) Intramuscular injection (IM) Subcutaneous injection (SC) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 4 Routes of administration Oral administration • Intrarectal administration Sublingual administration Topical administration ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 5 Routes of administration • Inhalation • Intracerebral administration • Intracerebroventricular administration (ICV) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 6 Distribution of drugs Speed of distribution to the brain depends on the solubility of the active molecule ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 7 Metabolisation Drugs are deactivated by enzymes in the blood, brain, liver and kidneys Final excretion is accomplished by the kidneys ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 8 Drug effectiveness Drugs vary widely in effectiveness Effectiveness depends on: – Site of action – Affinity ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 9 Dose-Response Curve The measure of a drug’s effects Curves are constructed for all of the effects a drug may have ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 10 Placebo effects • Placebo Effect is psychological Important to control for expectations during drug testing. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 11 Repeated drug administration Repeat administration of a drug will change the effect of the drug • Tolerance – Metabolic tolerance – Functional tolerance Withdrawal symptoms ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 12 Repeated drug administration • Sensitization Many drugs result in both tolerance and sensitization ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 13 Sites of drug actions Different drugs work in different ways in the brain All drugs affect synaptic transmission in one of two ways: Agonists Antagonists ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 14 Effects on production of neurotransmitters In the soma or axon terminal, precursors are synthesized into NT, which is then packaged into vesicles. – Some drugs act as precursors – Some drugs inactivate the enzymes required for NT synthesis ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 15 Effects on storage of neurotransmitters NTs are packaged into vesicles by transporter molecules on the vesicles’ membranes – Some drugs inactivate these transporter molecules, preventing storage of the NTs ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________
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Slide 16 Effects on release of neurotransmitters Drugs may deactivate the proteins that allow the vesicle to fuse with the presynaptic membrane Other drugs may cause the vesicles to fuse and rupture ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 17 Effects on receptors Direct agonists bind with the postsynaptic receptors Direct antagonists bind with the postsynaptic receptor ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 18 Effects on receptors
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