comm200sg3 - Chapter6. 1 ..Provide examplesofeach Signs::...

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Chapter 6. Verbal Behavior Approaches 1. Define signs and referents. Distinguish between signals and symbols. Provide examples of each. Signs : represent something Referent : the thins or concept represented by the sign Signal : 1-to-1 relationship to referent ex. A sweating speaker shows nervousness (symptom) Symbols : no direct rela. to referent, words do not have a direct rela. ex. “horse” & “cheval” (French) both refer to same animal, language primary means of comm.. is symbolic, may have different meaning depending upon interpreter’s perception 2. What are the two kinds of meaning? Provide examples of each. Denotation : literal dictionary meaning mom female who’s given birth Connotation : Personal associations w/a word Ex. Denotation- a female parent Connotation-Person1 “loving” “kind””giving” Person 2 “Unloving””mean””selfish” 3. What is the essential premise of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? Provide an example. Higher levels of though depend upon language. Structure of language influences the way an environment is perceived. Ex “Snow” If you snowboard may have 20 different was to describe snow (Eskimo tribes have over 20 diff. words for snow) Language shapes the way we see t he world and the way we behave EX. In our culture we tend to say “Don’t be a jerk!” other cultures “Don’t be immature!” whites refer to what happened in watts 1965 as “riots” some watts residents refer to as “rebellion” 4. Why is the manner in which questions are phrased important? Describe a research study that illustrates this idea. How questions phrased affects both perceptions and responses. “Death tax” vs. “inheritance tax” change language & It changes way people respond. Research Study : Loftus expert on trials and witnesses. Witness in a car accident lawyer asks: “The broken headlight?” assumes there was one “A broken headlight?” question 5. Name and give examples of four types of “Powerless” language. 6. Do males or females use more “Powerless” language? What evidence supports your judgment? Women use more. Females speech is viewed as being less powerful. Some research suggests females use these behaviors is not result of uncertainty & lower self-esteem but desire to involve the other person in the convo. 7. What is intense language? When is a receiver hearing intense language likely to be influenced by a speaker using such language?
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3 8. What is opinionated language? When is a receiver hearing opinionated language likely to be influenced by a speaker using such language? 9. Giles’ Communication Accommodation Theory What are the major variables? What are the two ways in which convergence and divergence can occur? Give communication examples. Why do communicators tend to converge? When might convergence lead to negative outcomes? Give examples. What is a major research finding relative to the variable of power?
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