NST106-Lec7 - Lecture 7: Lipids 2 Trans FA Health effects...

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Lecture 7: Lipids 2 • Trans FA Health effects and concerns Possible solutions • Omega-3- FA Chemistry, biosynthesis Biological roles • Rancidity Classes Autoxidation
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Trans FA (TFA) Hydrogenation always leads to formation of TFA to some extent. Historically, hydrogenation is attractive because it allows the conversion of veg oils into solid form with a more uniform FA composition for use in solid products and increases oxidative stability. Concerns: effects on human health and CVD (cardiovascular disease)
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TFA: effects on human health and CVD risks • Epidemiological data show that TFA is a major dietary risk factor in CVD saturated fat and TFA increase total and LDL- cholesterol TFA lowers HDL which increases CVD risk • High TFA intake interferes with conversion and metabolism of ω -3-FA (important in brain and eye functions) • High TFA intake during pregnancy has deleterious effects on growth and dev of infants during neonatal period • (Last lecture – TFA induces symptoms of NAFLD in mice)
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Labeling and regulatory policy Currently, mandatory labeling of TFA in foods. FDA requires labeling. USDA is collecting data on TFA contents of foods. (see Special Purpose Table No. 1, NDL data base. High TFA foods: margarine, foods fried in hydrogenated oil) Labeling allows use of “cholesterol-free” and “low saturated fats” but actually these foods contain TFA Estimated intake in the US: 3 % of total calories = 10 g/day
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Solutions Consumers: • Avoid high TFA foods – need information on nutritional label Gov’t • Prohibit TFA in foods Food industry: • Avoid hydrogenation - Use blends of different veg oils • Develop varieties of seed oils with higher levels of mono-unsaturates and less PUFA
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Some new developments Food Tech Vol 54#12 Dec 2000 Develop new varieties of seed oils with improved functionality, nutrition and oxidative stability. Sunflower with high levels of oleic acid developed by conventional breeding by USDA scientists. Called “NuSun” by the National Sunflower Assn of Bismarck,ND: sat fat (40%), C18:2 (20-30%), C18:1(50- 70%), no need for hydrogenation, well suited for commercial deep fat frying, used by Proctor & Gamble for frying “Pringles”.
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NST106-Lec7 - Lecture 7: Lipids 2 Trans FA Health effects...

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