NST106-Lec4 - Lecture 4: Carbohydrates 1 Importance in...

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Lecture 4: Carbohydrates 1 • Importance in biology, nutrition, foods • Classification • Monosaccharides Glucose - structure, reducing sugars, Maillard reaction • Disaccharides Lactose – biological role, lactose intolerance
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CARBOHYDRATES (CHO) • Most widely distributed & abundant organic cpds on earth, cellulose is most abundant CHO • Play major roles in metabolism of plants and animals, plants synthesize CHO with light energy that support the existence of other organisms on earth • Worldwide, CHO supply about 80% of human caloric intake in form of starch; rice is the staple food of over half of the world’s population • Even undigestible CHO (dietary fiber) plays a nutritional role
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Contribution of CHO to total calories in diet • Worldwide - ~80% • In USA % of total calories CHO 46 Fats 42 Proteins 12
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Photosynthesis Plants (autotrophs = self-nourished) 6CO 2 + 12 H 2 O b C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6H 2 O light energy Humans Animals Heterotrophs = “‘other nourished” CHO
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Functional roles of CHO in foods • Sweetening agents – sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, fructose • Thickening agent – gives body or texture- starch, cellulose, hemicelluloses, gums, pectins • Precursors of flavor/aroma and color generated during processing & storage of foods
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Classification of CHO • Monosaccharides –component monomers of CHO - glucose - most abundant; fructose, mannose, galactose • Oligosaccharides –2-20 monomers –sucrose (2),
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NST106-Lec4 - Lecture 4: Carbohydrates 1 Importance in...

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