Tutorial Quiz 1 - 2008-03-24 Week ONE (Interpreting...

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22:06 Week ONE (Interpreting Archaeological Data)     Archaeological Theory: reconstructing behavior before starting to interpret  and arrive at an understanding of ancient cultures. Archaeological culture     : group of related artifacts. Anthropological culture     : shared by communities of people. Archaeological Method Survey     : Purpose is to map the physical remains of human activity. Excavation     : Technique of unearthing, analyzing and recording. Archaeological Record: entirety of archaeological evidence. Artifacts     : objects that show traces of human manufacture. Ecofacts     : biological organisms or the result of biological processes. Archaeological Data: survey and excavation Site     :  location(s) where evidence has been presented. Stratigraphy     : examination of strata (geological layers) Stratigraphic feature/depositional unit     : material that was deposited at a  particular point in time. Olduvai Gorge: located in the East African Rift Valley, Tanzania; dating  between 1.75-0.4 mya; contains pebble tools of the Oldowan industry along  with fossilized bones of Early Homo (Homo Habilis/rudolfensis). Also  evidence of living areas. How do we define these as artifacts ? o They were intentionally made. What are the artifacts? o Oldowan industry:      pebble tools including choppers, flakes, manuports.
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What were they used for? o Scavenging animal carcasses. How were they recovered? o Through excavations (horizontal and vertical) Who made them? o Early homo species. Are they evidence of culture? o Evidence of archaeological culture. o Evidence of a tradition of learning so they are cultural, but in a very  modest form. These beginnings are the source of later human culture. Week TWO (Archaeological Survey and Excavation)     The Nature of Archaeological Record The material remains  of human activity in the past. o Preserved in the ground. o Sites: areas of material data/activity/habitation. o Sites are buried in the stratigraphy of the earth’s surface. Sites are found by survey.     Sites are explored by excavation.     Finding Archaeological Data Reconnaissance
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o Researching where sites might be  o Historical documents o Indigenous knowledge o Property owners o Geological associations Technical methods o Satellite imagery o Remote sensing o Surface features Excavation:  careful removal of the soil, artifacts and features; recording data in 3  dimensions. Expensive
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This note was uploaded on 10/01/2008 for the course ANTH 103 taught by Professor Martindale during the Spring '08 term at The University of British Columbia.

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Tutorial Quiz 1 - 2008-03-24 Week ONE (Interpreting...

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