Methods to study microorganisms

Methods to study microorganisms - 01-29-08 BIOL 2051 Exam 1...

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01-29-08 BIOL 2051 Exam 1 - Tuesday, February 12 th - Covering: - First day intro - Intro and History - Structure and Function - Methods to Study - Growth - 40 MC questions - In class, at normal time - LSU ID! Methods to study microorganisms Ch. 2 (2.4), Ch. 5 (5.1-5.3), Ch. 18 (18.1-3) Diversity of microorganisms (prokaryotes) Found in every type of environment - Different metabolic capabilities Examples of different environments: - pH of 1 to 11 - Temperature of 0-100 ° C - Varying degrees of salinity - Aerobic vs. Anaerobic When considering how prokaryotes obtain their carbon, energy, etc…, they are also very diverse: Carbon source: All organisms require a carbon source, but the type of molecule that serves as the carbon source varies. For example: Glucose or other carbohydrate Or a gaseous form of carbon like CO 2 , methane, ethane Energy source: All organisms must produce energy (ATP), but how prokaryotes do so (oxidation of different chemicals or light) may be different: Oxidation of glucose or other carbohydrate
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Oxidation of sulfides, iron, ammonia Photosynthesis With and without chlorophyll Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Nitrogen source: All organisms must also have a nitrogen source, but what serves as the nitrogen source may vary: Nitrate, ammonia, amino acids Or gaseous N 2 from the air So, you need to consider the metabolic requirements of the organism in order to culture it (or grow it in the lab.) For example, if the organism uses glucose as a carbon source, glucose needs to be present. If it oxidizes ammonia for energy, ammonia must be available in the culture media. Nutritional types of microorganisms Based on their different requirements of carbon/energy, microorganisms can be given different classifications: In terms of carbon source: 1. Heterotrophs - organic carbon compound (like carbohydrates) 2. Autrotrophs - CO 2 in air In terms of energy source: 1. Phototrophs - Light, photosynthesis 2. Chemotrophs - Chemicals - Chemoorganotrophs – organic compound (for energy) - Chemolithotrophs – inorganic compound like NH 4 + or H 2 S
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These terms can be combined to completely describe the organism. For
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Methods to study microorganisms - 01-29-08 BIOL 2051 Exam 1...

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