Study guide v.2

Study guide v.2 - Theories of development, 1-16 Development...

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Theories of development, 1-16 Development means using the productive resources of society to improve the living conditions of the poorest people Differs from econ growth because pays attention to the conditions of production and social consequences Entails social, cultural, and economic progress Argument: Western modernism and developmentism monopolize dreams of progress, destroy alternative conceptions of the future based in the ancient cultures found in the worlds regions other than Europe. St of human aspirations and yet, exactly because great ideas form the basis of power, subject o the most intense manipulation and liable to be used for purposes that reverse its original ideal intent World bank centers of control (Washington, London, Geneva) are far, far away from the countries living in absolute poverty Geography of Development: Societies vary greatly from place to place. Here we examine two things: relations between societies and environments and regional variations in societies Different types of economy foster different forms of relationship, different types of communication. E.g. extended family network more important in place where subsistence farming is the norm Measuring Geography of Development: Capitalist society uses GNP: value of the total final output of goods and services produced by an economy World Bank ranks/groups countries based on GNP (gross national product) per capita .9 billion people live in high income countries, their economies are also growing the fastest in terms of GNP/capita On average most middle/low income countries are growing substantially slower (1.9% vs 0.4%)
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UN uses Human Development Index (HDI): takes into account many factors such as live expectancy, literacy and average years of schooling, proportion of people with enough income to live a decent life e.g. Malaysia and Iraq have same GNP/capita but Malaysia’s HDI is much higher UN also uses Human Freedom Index: political freedom, rule of law, non discrimination When we look at HDI we see significant improvements on average in third world countries in areas such as access to health services, literacy, mortality rate in children, primary school enrollment for females, rural sanitation This serves to prove that development does work. Unfortunately gap between rich and poor nations is increasing. Europeans spend more on ice cream that it would cost to provide food and water to those in need. Critique I: Data isn’t always reliable, hard to decide what is a conventional means of quantifying and recording the data. Currently we use first world measurements and standards. Often don’t take into account “woman’s work”/food and products produced in the informal sector. There are many informal exchanges of income (such as gifts) that take place even in
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Study guide v.2 - Theories of development, 1-16 Development...

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