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08 - Case Theory; distribution of PRO

08 - Case Theory; distribution of PRO - 4 Case Theory...

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1/23/08 - Case Theory; distribution of PRO 4 levels of structure D structure move ɑ S-structure move ɑ LF PF For next week: read first 2 chapters Londau D-Structure and S-structure connected by move-alpha Passive: _____ was arrested John Johni was arrested ti Raising: ____ Seem [Bill to be polite] -> move ɑ Bill seems to be polite. What forces move-alpha to apply? Even if you fill the subject position with an expletive, neither is grammatical. We have to apply move alpha. Case Theory ensures that movement takes place. Structural case NOM and ACC assigned in all languages, whether realized or not. Case =abstract. Case assigned under relation called government . He left NOT him left. = must be NOM I saw him NOT I saw he. = must be ACC I spoke to him NOW I spoke to he. Obj. of Prep = ACC *I am proud Mary. *I am proud her. *I am proud she. 4-1 4
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Adjectives are not Case assigners. Have to mark with preposition, which can assign ACC Case. I am proud of Mary. I am proud of her. *I am proud of she. The picture Mary. The picture her. Can ʼ t directly associate noun with noun phrase. I want him to leave I want *he to leave. Only tensed Infl assigns nominative Case 3 Case assigners: prep, verb, tensed infl. Adj, noun, non-tensed infl are not Case assigners. Case filter: Any overt NP must be marked with Case. If it is not marked with Case, sentence is bad => throw it out. *DP which is phonetically overt and lacks Case. Start out in lexicon with all nouns/projections of noun totally unmarked for Case. Insert them in D-structure, by the end of the derivation, must have assigned any overt NP a Case-marking. If you fail to do that, the structure is bad and we throw it out. Distinct from move rule itself. Provides a way of licensing Case to non- Case marked nouns in certain positions. Move noun phrase from a position where it can ʼ t get Case to a place where Case marking does apply. Don ʼ t say that move ɑ must apply. ____ [Seem Bill to be polite] If we don ʼ t apply move ɑ , the structure will be thrown out by Case structure b/c we have overt NP which is incapable of being assigned a Case. I Seems [Bill to be polite] +tense 4-2
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Abstract Case sorts out positions where overt NPs must and may not appear. Classical approach is to say that Case is assigned under a relationship called government . Government is similar to C-Command, but slightly narrower. If ɑ c-commands ß and every category that dominates ɑ also dominates ß. Don ʼ t want government to go too far down the tree. Must be restricted to make sure ɑ governs ß just in case ɑ does not dominate ß and every category that dominates ɑ also dominates ß. If barriers between ɑ and ß, the government relation doesn ʼ t hold.
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