08 - Binding Theory - 5 1/28/08 - Binding Theory The...

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1/28/08 - Binding Theory The binding theory divides into three types of things – anaphors, pronouns, R-expressions The binding theory has three conditions. A. An anaphor must be bound in its governing category. C-Command condition: *Himselfi pinched Johni Johni pinched himselfi Locality Condition The element binding cannot be too far away. *Johni said [that himselfi left] The antecedent is too far away – it is outside the CP clause containing the anaphor Condition A contains the basic c-command condition, but also incorporates the locality condition. Pronouns are in complementary distribution with anaphors. *Johni pinched himi LGB defines notion “free” as opposite of bound. B. A pronoun is free in its governing category. R-expressions can’t have a c-command. *He i said that Johni would leave. Johni said that hei would leave. C. An R-expression may not be bound. There are apparent exceptions to the statements of these principles. Two features: [+- anaphoric], [+- pronominal]. If a lexical item is [+a, - p] (anaphors), it must obey condition A. If it is [-a, +p] (pronouns), it must obey condition B. If it is [-a, -p] (regular nouns), it must obey condition C. If something is +a and +p, it would have to be both bound and 5-1 5
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free within its governing domain. If there were such a thing, what property must it have to escape reducing to this condition. Chomsky proposes that such an element can only exist if it is ungoverned. The property of PRO is that is lacks Case. We know that Case is assigned under government. Therefore, if it’s true that the essential property of PRO is that it is ungoverned, it follows that it will not have Case. “believe” can either take a finite complement:
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08 - Binding Theory - 5 1/28/08 - Binding Theory The...

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