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Running head: FINAL ESSAYS 1 Final Essays Name: Institution: Date: FINAL ESSAYS Theoretical Shift in Religious Studies David Hume’s Natural History Religion basically arises from the fact that mankind is anxious and uncertain about the future. No one knows what the future holds, and hence man tries to create an institution of invisible, unknown powers to govern their destinies. Hume explains that adversaries of the world that are inevitable, such as vengeance, severity, cruelty and malice compel mankind to be a religionist in a bid to escape them. The panic that is in the mind while experiencing life problem is the pushing factor that leads to the thought of having a deity or a divine being who will intercept the problems. Hume further criticizes the notion of praise and eulogizing, which is a trait in almost all religions. He considers both praise and eulogy a result of the very same fears that give birth to the art of religion and belief in deities. The divinity in religious practice is given so much praise, and all virtue and excellence is attributed to them, to levels of exaggerations.
FINAL ESSAYS 2 Every single thing that happens on earth is associated with the divine being even without questioning phenomena. Hume argues that religion presents a contradiction in the principles of human nature. Natural fears present the notion of a satanic and malicious divinity, while human beings propensity to praise leads to the acknowledgement of an excellent divinity. He further adds that these opposing principles influence human beings understanding. Both fear and hope are aspects of religion because they are emotions that at a particular time in life agitate the mind. Each of these emotions is a precursor for a species of divinity, suitable to the emotion. Hume argues that wen human kind is in a cheerful mood, they are suited to an array of activities such as entertainment, business etc. and at this point they do not think about religion. When human beings are sad and dejected, they go back into the terror of the invisible world to seek answers. In this, he explains that terror and fear are the sources of religion, and if they didn’t exist, then probably there would be no religion. Hume finishes by stating that it is absurd and inconsistence to believe that a deity or a divinity has got human passion, and in any case they possess a given passion, then they can also possess other forms of passions. Max Weber’s History Max weber tries to interrelate the association between religion and socio economic activities. In the Weber thesis, he tries to explain the religious beliefs by reducing it to something different, something that is more basic and fundamental, of which him and others were a mere expression or effect. Just like many other philosophers, his ideas were in conformity when he talked about cause and effect. In the economic revolution experienced in Europe, religious ideas and attitudes were the causes while the social and economic changes amounted to the effect. In a nutshell, Weber great work came to be known because he tried to connect the influence of religion on social and economic policies across Europe. To him, religion which is the act of

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