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Psychology 215b-- first half

Psychology 215b-- first half - Sensation and Perception 1...

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Psychology 215b—Sense and Perception Tuesday and Thursday 8:30-10:30am January 8, 2008 Cats with white hair and bright blue eyes are 80% likely to be naturally deaf January 10, 2008 Fundamentals of Perception Challenges of Perception Create a machine to do what we can do Create Artificial Intelligence Create robots that can walk and navigate on their own Cars that have the intelligence to be able to drive themselves ** What we perceive is limited by our sensory structures and does not necessarily reflect the world—our sensory systems change and distort things more or less in our own interest Our sensory systems are fundamentally set up to detect change, sameness bores them it does not interest them—we listen to the professor talk and we do not pay attention to the constant hum of the fan. If the fan were to suddenly make noise, we would detect the change. It is in our best interest to notice change (survival instinct) Perception One purpose is to inform us about properties of the environment that are important for survival o Deaf o Motion-deficits Experience life as a series of snapshots (low frames per second) o No pain Discussed at the end of class—can experience touch and other senses, but no pain Why understand Perception So we can design devices to restore perception (prosthetics) Understand perceptual demands encountered when we do things (driving) What is Perception A conscious sensory experience We take in tons of information every day that we are not aware of Perceptual Process Stimulus Processing Response Stimulus 1. Environmental Stimulus—the whole environment 2. Attended Stimulus—what you are actually paying attention to a. Redirect sensory receptors towards the stimulus Processing 3. Stimulus falls onto Receptors Sensation and Perception 1
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4. Transduction—the transformation of one form of energy into another form of energy (ex. Light being seen through the eye to electrical energy; Smell is chemical scent to electrical) 5. Neural Processing—refers to the operations that change the electrical responses of neurons in various ways Response 6. Perception 7. Recognition—our ability to place an object into a category and give it meaning (ex. Knowing that a rabid raccoon is dangerous and a moth is a relatively harmless) 8. Action—motor activities such as moving the head and eyes and locomoting through the environment Knowledge— any information that a perceiver brings to a situation Priming —activating parts of particular representations or associations in memory just before carrying out an action or task. Processing Bottom-Up o Starts at receptors and moves up into the brain Top-Down o Influence of information already possessed by the brain These two processors generally work together—ex. Pharmacist deciphering doctor’s handwriting B-U—examining the writing T-D—knowledge of possible drugs it might be Studying the Perceptual Process
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