NTR 222 Final Study Guide.docx - Nutrition Final Study...

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Nutrition Final – Study Guide-Module 1oLabel reading: Calorie countingGrams of fat x 9Grams of carbohydrates (COH) x 4Grams of protein x 4oNew Food Label ChangesProduced by USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) and HHS (Health and Human Services)Updated every 5 yearsBased on people ages 2 years and olderChanges to food label:Serving sizes updatedServings are written in a larger font and bolder typeCalories are written in a larger fontUpdated daily valuesAdded sugars must be listedChanges in nutrients requiredoVitamin D and potassium are being required because American diets often lack theseDeficiencies of these nutrients often lead to chronic diseaseoVitamin A and C are not being required because Americans rarely have deficiencies of these in their dietsActual amounts of nutrients requiredNew footnoteo“The % Daily Value (DV) tells you how much a nutrient in a serving of food contributes to a daily diet. 2,000 calories a day is used for general nutrition advice.”oLabel ClaimsHeart disease: “low” total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterolHypertension: “low sodium”Cancer (fiber): “low fat” and a “good source of fiber”Cancer (fruits and vegetables): “low fat”, “good” source of vitamin A, vitamin C, OR fiberOsteoporosis: at least 20% daily value (DV) for calciumoNutrient density = amount (mg or grams, however much is in the substance/food) ÷ totalcalories in substance/foodoDietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s)A set of nutrient valuesDifferent for specific demographicsoLactating women have different needs than people age 4 and upEstimated average requirements (EAR’s)oAverage need = 45 units/dayOnly covers half of the population
oIf intake falls below this, it is probably inadequateRecommended Dietary Allowances (RDA’s)o62 units/dayCovers 98% of populationoIntake below this, but above EAR is sometimes adequate, but usually still inadequate for the average individualoIntake above this is most likely adequate for most peopleAdequate Intakes (AI’s)oPretty much the same as RDATolerable Upper Intake Levels (TUIL’s)oIntake levels that are above the RDA, but are still considered acceptableIntake above this is considered a toxicity danger to the individualAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)oAdequate energy and nutrientsoReduce risk of chronic diseasesoRanges:45-65% kcalories from carbohydrates20-35% kcalories from fat10-35% kcalories from protein-Module 2oStudy DesignTypes, their conclusions, and why: (In order of increasing evidence strength)“Test tube” and animal researchoConclusions can be made about the effect of a drug or certain environment on living tissue or animalsThis can deem something as “safe” to begin testing on humans or to release to the public for useObservational/Epidemiological studiesoInclude

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