Mental ImageryImportant: The “pictures in the head” idea is: - wrong - not taken seriously - not part of the debate - used by some as a “straw man” Three historically important approaches (“themes”) in the study of mental imagery (i.e., three hypotheses about the nature of mental imagery): - dual-coding (Paivio) - propositional (Pylyshyn, Anderson & Bower) - functional equivalency (Shepard, Kosslyn) Q: What kinds of mental codes are used by the human mind? Experimental evidence that mental imageryuses a distinctive memory code: 1. mental clocks 2. mental rotation 3. selective interference 4. geographical memory 1. Paivio’s studies of comparisons of mental clocks The dual-codinghypothesis - Allan Paivio - part of the “new mentalism” - grew out of memory research using lists of paired associates - extended to research on mental comparisons. Imagine two clocks showing the times 4:25 and 9:10. Q: On which clock face do the hour hand and the minute hand form the largerangle? Paivio (1978) measured how long subjects took to answer such questions correctly.
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