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lecture 1 - CHEM 231 Introduction Syllabus and First...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEM 231 Introduction, Syllabus and First Lecture Introductory lecture 1 Prerequisite for course The prerequisite for this course is Successful completion of CHEM 107/108 CHEM 111 OR AP/IB CREDIT FOR COLLEGE LEVEL INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY If you do not have one of the above prerequisites you are seriously jeopardizing your likelihood of success in this course and you should contact me immediately Introductory lecture 2 Introduction to your Instructor Rebecca M. Kissling Raised in Montana; Indiana; New York and the Florida Keys BS 1984, Geology, SUNY Binghamton 19841996 professional geologist and chemist in New York State; Kansas; Hawaii and Colorado PhD 2001, Chemistry, UNCChapel Hill, Organobase catalysis Post Doctoral Work: University of New Orleans Organometallic catalysis Assistant Professor BU 20032007 Current official title `Lecturer, Organic Chemistry' Please address me as Dr. Kissling or Professor Kissling It is not proper to address me by my first name only or by my last name only. Introductory lecture 3 We start at the start time of class; so be prepared If we start on time we can have a break If we do not start on time we won't have time for a break We each have an impact on our immediate environment. Be considerate of your classmates by avoiding the following activities: Surfing the internet on your laptop; Allowing your cell phone to ring during class Having a whispering dialogue with your neighbors Packing up before class has concluded Promoting the learning environment Introductory lecture 4 This course covers Fundamental properties and rules about OCHEM Functional groups Nomenclature Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Conjugated systems Aromatic compounds Introductory lecture 5 The course will be divided into four sections Introductory material and fundamentals of organic chemistry Chemistry of Alkenes Chemistry of conjugated systems Alkyne and alkane chemistry Introductory lecture 6 Evaluation Quizzes during discussion 55 pts Participation during discussion 33 pts Class Exams 600 pts Final exam 312 pts Introductory lecture 7 Exam Dates Exam I: September 23 Exam II: October 28 Exam III: November 18 Final Exam: Date TBD by registrar Introductory lecture 8 Evaluation continued Only the best 2 of 3 class exams are counted This means you can miss an exam without making it up Some situations may be eligible for a makeup exam If there is a makeup exam, it will not be the same exam that the rest of the class took. The Final Exam is mandatory Introductory lecture 9 Resources Coming to class Textbook; answer guide and model stets Overheads Being prepared to participate in discussion A study plan that allows you to learn the important material Introductory lecture 10 Your role in discussion Attendance in discussion is mandatory Come to discussion ready to work and participate You will work in small groups led by an undergraduate teaching assistant There will be group quizzes each week in discussion The week prior to an exam there will be a Mini practice exam Our exams will be held during discussion time You will have assigned seats during exams and 11 Introductory lecture during exam hand back Office hours and appointments I hold 6 office hours per week Your head TA provides 4 office hours per week Graduate and undergraduate TAs will also have office hours during the week. In office hours I like to cover course material. I will leave a few hours in my schedule a week for appointments. Appointments are good places to discuss issues that are tangential to the course. If you must be away from school for an extended period of time for reasons outside your control, please contact me. 12 Introductory lecture Advice for performing to your potential in organic chemistry Come to class having at least looked over material Don't be fooled by mere `understanding' of material. You have to have more than a cursory knowledge to do well on exams I am pretty clear about what I think is important. It is what I cover in class. Coming to class is a lynchpin of success Make sure you progress from simple questions to more complicated questions. Exam questions are often on the same level of sophistication as homework problems. Exam questions require you to recognize what key points are important to answering the question, weigh the information and decide on the best answer. 13 Introductory lecture Introductory lecture What is Organic Chemistry? Chemistry of compounds containing carbon The potential of molecule complexity is vastly greater than for those in the inorganicsalt world Organic chemistry is key to Oil industry; Pharmaceuticals; Plastics and synthetic fibers; all biology Organic chemicals are soluble in organic solvents Reactions happen with populations of molecules14 Introductory lecture Here are some organic compounds H H H H C C H H C H C C H C H H HH H2C H2C H2 C C H2 CH2 CH2 three views of cyclohexane heparin nicotine Introductory lecture 15 Section I Chapter 1 fundamentals of organic chemistry Functional groups Carbanions, carbocations and radicals Chapter 2 alkanes Chapter 3 conformations Introductory lecture 16 Lets Review the periodic table Introductory lecture 17 Lets Review Electronegativities Introductory lecture 18 The Importance of Electronegativity Electronegativity differences are the number one factor that dictates solubility, intermolecular forces and reactivity. Introductory lecture 19 Lets Review the periodic table Introductory lecture 20 Typical number of bonds for elements one bond H F Cl Br I two bonds O three bonds N four bonds Introductory lecture C 21 Lone pairs on neutral atoms 3 lone pairs 2 lone pairs F O Cl S Br I P C B Al Introductory lecture 22 The octet rule in organic chemistry For most elements common in organic chemistry valence satisfied means being surrounded by eight electrons The exceptions to this are: Boron (B) and Aluminum (Al) where 6 electrons means valence satisfied Of course hydrogen is also an exception, where 2 electrons (in a bond) means valence satisfied Introductory lecture 23 Formal Charge on atoms in organic compounds Whether an atom appears to be positively or negatively charged Need to know which atom How many electrons that atom `owns' in its valence shell normally, how many extra or fewer electrons it `owns' under the given circumstance Introductory lecture 24 Formal charge simplified Exchange a lone pair for a bond and the formal charge is negative Lose a bond and the electrons that go with it then the charge is positive CH3 Introductory lecture H H 25 H + C H H Formal charge simplified If the octet of electrons includes one more lone pair than the element normally has then formal charge is negative If the octet of electrons has one less lone pair than the element normaly has, then formal charge is positive OH Introductory lecture H H 26 H + O H H The two types of electron orbitals important to OCHEM s-orbitals p-orbitals Introductory lecture 27 The two types of true bonding in OCHEM Sigma bonding Pi bonding Introductory lecture 28 Resonance Electrons in bonds can be in all locations at once, as far as our perspective goes This is why we call them electron clouds Under certain situations electrons can spread beyond just one bond To express this phenomenon we draw resonance structures Drawing resonance structures is a skill you will need for both organic courses Introductory lecture 29 ...
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