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Class 5 Notes - Chapter 4 Personality and Values If a man...

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Chapter 4 Personality and Values If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. —Henry David Thoreau
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Personality is: the set of distinctive traits and characteristics that can be used to compare and contrast individuals. Why examine personality? self awareness managing others person-job fit
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Personality is composed of a set of well-defined traits or dimensions. Trait A Trait B Trait C Personality Determinants Personality is defined and determined by -Biological Factors -Social Factors -Cultural Factors -Situational Factors Personality Traits
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Personality “Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.” Four major perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Trait - specific dimensions of personality Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
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Four major perspectives on  Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Trait - specific dimensions of personality Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
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Psychoanalytic Perspective “first comprehensive theory of personality” (1856-1939) University of Vienna 1873 Voracious Reader Medical School Graduate Specialized in Nervous Disorders Some patients’ disorders Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause! had no physical cause!
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The Unconscious “the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness small part above surface (Preconscious) Unconscious below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression banishing unacceptable thoughts & passions to unconscious Dreams & Slips
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Freud & Personality Structure “Personality arises from conflict twixt agressive, pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints” Satisfaction without the guilt? Ego Super Ego Id
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Freud & Personality Structure Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave Ego Super Ego Id
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Thematic Apperceptions Test (TAT) Rorschach Inkblot Test The Unconscious & Assessment How can we assess personality? (i.e., the unconscious) Objective Tests? No - tap the conscious Projective Tests? Yes - tap the unconscious
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Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Were Freud’s theories the “best of his time” or were they simply incorrect? Current research contradicts many of Freud’s specific ideas Development does not stop in childhood Dreams may not be unconscious drives and wishes Slips of the tongue are likely competing “nodes” in memory network
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Freud’s Ideas as Scientific Theory Theories must explain observations and offer testable hypotheses Few Objective Observations Few Objective Observations Few Hypotheses Few Hypotheses (Freud’s theories based on his recollections &
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