conversationalja01roseiala.pdf - 1 CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS BY ARTHUR ROSE-INNES GRADUATED EXERCISES IN CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE KELLY WALSH

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Unformatted text preview: 1 CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS BY ARTHUR ROSE-INNES GRADUATED EXERCISES IN CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE, KELLY & WALSH, LTD, YOKOHAMA, SHANGHAI, HONGKONG and (All rights reserved.) THE Box OF CURIOS PRESS, YOKOHAMA. SINGAPORE. CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE FOR BEGINNERS. INTRODUCTION. This book consists of three parts Part I, Graduated Exercises in ConversaJapanese Part II, Elementary Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language Part III, Vocabulary of Common Japanese Words.* The learning of a language is a complicated process. In general it may be said to consist of two parts, theory and practice. Theory refers to the knowledge of words, their peculiarities, special uses, inflexions, how they depend on each other and how they are combined in a sentence. Elementary notions on these subjects as regards Colloquial Japanese will be found in Parts II and III of this work. Practice consists in learning to express oneself without difficulty or hesitation, in acquiring a correct pronunciation and in training the ear to understand the language as spoken by the natives. Practice, of course, cannot be learned from books however, the Exercises in Part I, supply models and materials for a great number of sentences which can be used in real life. The student is strongly advised to speak Japanese or try to speak Japanese on every possible occasion to servants, rikisha-men, tramway-conductors, shop-attendants, etc.; and to continue speaking Japanese even when the other person answers in quite good English. Get as much practice in Japanese as you can, and don't go about giving free lessons in English. The author suggests that the student should begin with the Exercises, studying only such parts of the Grammar as are indicated at the beginning of each Exercise and consulting the Vocabulary when necessary. No particular method of study is recommended in detail but the author believes that the pupil should repeat each sentence after his teacher several times until he can say it with a fairly good pronounciation and a reasonable degree of fluency he should also have a knowledge of what the sentence means while he is saying it the lesson should not be considered as known until he can do all the above with : tional ; ; ; : ; ; ; his book closed. the time the student has finished the Exercises, he will have gone all through the Grammar, and he should then, if he has the courage, read the Voand cabulary, which contains many useful phrases not found in the Exercises, a source are which of common the use hints words, frequently many regarding of trouble to the beginner. The Japanese Exercises were made in Japanese by a Japanese under the on the author's direction they are in no sense a translation of the English It should be clearly the of translation is a the Japanese. English contrary, understood that the version given is only one out of many equally good and be given. This will be readily understood correct translations which By ; ; when it is remembered, that might in Japanese nouns have neither gender, number For the convenience of those who wish to read the Japanese Characters from the I has been printed apart in very beginning of their studies, the Japanese text of Part Japanese Characters with kana alongside this is called Part IV. * : 2045773 nor case, and verbs have often no subject expressed nor have they any inflexions corresponding to person or number in real life, the meaning is determined by context and circumstances. In the Vocabulary at the end of this book the etymology of words is given when it is considered helpful to the student. The average educated Japanese has no notion of what etymology means and when asked the origin of a word will immediately start explaining the characters or symbols with which it is written. .In this matter the author's chief guide has been Otsuki's Genkai. Besides the present book, the student who wishes, not only to go through these Exercises, but to express his own ideas, must have an English-Japanese Dictionary the best one no doubt is, Hobart-Hampden and Parlett's EnglishJapanese Dictionary of the Spoken Language ; if a pocket dictionary is desired, ; ; : the author's English- Japanese Conversation Dictionary may prove useful. Japanese-English dictionaries are very numerous but mostly unsatisfactory as they are generally made for the use of the Japanese the best one is perhaps Brinkley 's. The author begs also to recommend the following Lange 's A Text-book of Colloquial Japanese, for exercises of a more advanced type Chamberlain 's Handbook of Colloquial Japanese, for further studies of the grammar Imbrie 's Handbook of English- Japanese Etymology, for the translation of those words in English which are of special difficulty. These books the author has consulted throughout and used freely. The author's Examples of Conversational Japanese, Parts I and II may be useful to the student who has made some progress in the present book. Part II uses no word not contained in this work, Part I has a somewhat more extensive vocabulary but an English translation is given along with the Japanese text. Part III of this work is the Japanese text of Parts I and II in Japanese characters with kana alongside. Those who wish to obtain some knowledge of the written characters cannot do better than study Chamberlain's The Study of Japanese Writing ; a cheap extract on the same subject is the author's Three Thousand Chinese- J apanese ; : ; ; Characters. The letter A, B, C or D found after each sentence gives an idea of the A sentences should be used to inferiors only B are degree of politeness familiar C are polite in an ordinary way and D are somewhat formally ' ' ' : ; ' ; ' ' ' ; polite. Black-face numbers refer to the paragraphs of Part II, ' PART I. GRADUATED EXERCISES IN CONVERSATIONAL JAPANESE. EXERCISE 1. Japanese nouns have no number and, as a rule, no gender. Adjectives in Japanese, as in English, have no gender or number. Japanese verbs have no person or number. True adjectives in Japanese end in ai, ii, oi or ui. Used attributively the adjective is placed, as in English, before the noun. When used as predicates of affirmative sentences in familiar speech there is no need of any verb in Japanese in less familiar speech no desu or simply desu is added. The negative construction of adjectives is shown in 195; nai is familiar and must be replaced by arimasen in polite speech. Particles or postpositions are placed after the word to which they refer. ; empitsu : a pencil. mise : a shop an office. uchi : a house. kono : this. sono : that (not far). ano : that (far). takai : dear high. ; ; yasui okii : : cheap. big. chiisai : small. kuroi : black. desu : am ; is ; are. arimasen ; nai (familiar) wa : : is not. a particle used for emphasis or contrast, often placed after the subject of a sentence. no ka : a particle with : an interrogative many varied uses. particle. Kono chiisai mise wa takai (B). 2. Ano okii mise wa yasui no desti, (C). 4. Sono chiisai mise wa takai no 3. Kono chiisai mise u'a yasui no desu ka ? (C). desu (C). 5. Chiisai mise wa yasuku arimasen (C). 6. Kono empitsu wa takai desu ka ? (C). 7. Sono empitsu wa takaku nai (B). 8. Kono uchi wa okii ka ? 10. Sono empitsu wa kuroi no desu ka? 9. Kono uchi wa okiku nai (B). (B). 13. 12. Ano uchi wa chiisai ka ? (B). 11. Kono empitsu wa kuroi (B). (C). Ano uchi wa okii desu (C). 14. Ano uchi wa takai desu ka ? (C). 15. Ano uchi wa takaku arimasen (C). 16. Sono empitsu wayasui no desu ka ? (C). 17. Kono empitsu wa yasui (B). 1. This small shop is dear. 2. That big shop is cheap. 3. Is this small shop 6. Is this 5. Small shops are not cheap. ? 4. That small shop is dear. 9. This house 8. Is this house big ? is not dear. dear 7. That ? pencil pencil 12. Is that 11. This pencil is black. is not big. 10. Is that pencil black ? house small ? 13. That house is big. 14. Is that house high ? 15. That house is not high. 16. Is that pencil cheap ? 17. This pencil is cheap. 1. cheap EXERCISE 2. True adjectives when used as predicates in connection with the polite verb as shown in 1 92. gozaru change their terminations The negative construction of these sentences is shown in 196. hana heya hon : inu : akai a flower. a room. a book. a dog. : : kami : paper. kodomo : a child tokei : a watch ; tsukue : ; boy clock. ; girl. : red. kitanai : shiroi white. : dirty. gozaimasu (polite) gozaimasen (polite) watakushi ; watashi anata : am : : : is ; is ; are. not. I. you. a desk. 2. Kono tsukue wa yam gozai1. Sono tsukue wa tako gozaimasu ka? (D). masu (D). 3. Ano hana wa ako gozaimasu (D). 4. Sono kami wa shiro gozaimasu ka? (D). 5. Kono kami wa shiro gozaimasen ; kono kami wa ako gozaimasu (D). 6. Anata wa okiu gozaimasu (D). 7. Watashi wa okiku arimasen 9. Ano kodomo wa chiiso gozai8. Kono heya wa kitano gozaimasu (D). (C). masu ka?(D). 10. Ano kodomo wa chiiso gozaimasen (D). 11. Watakushi wa 13. 12. Kono kuroi inu wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? (D). chiiso gozaimasA (D). Sono kuroi inu wa kitanaku arimasen (C). 14. Kono hon wa tako gozaimasu ka ? 16. Ano uchi wa ako gozaimasu ka? 15. Kono hon wa takaku nai (B). (D). 18. Kono tokei wa yasu gozaimasu (D). nai akaku Ano uchi 17. wa (B). (D). 20. Ano mise wa yasu gozai19. Ano okii mise wa yasu gozaimasu ka? (D). 22. Kono tokei wa takai wa kitano 21. Ano mise (D). gozaimasu masen^). desuka? (C). 23. Kono tokei wa tako gozaimasen (D). 24. Sono empitsu wa kuro gozaimasu ka ? (D). 25. Kono empitsu wa kuro gozaimasen ; kono empitsu wa ako gozaimasu (D). 26. Sono akai hon wa tako gozaimasu ka ? (D). 27. Kono akai hon wa takaku nai (B). 28. Ano takai uchi wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? 30. Kono heya wa chiiso gozai29. Ano uchi wa kitanaku arimasen (C). (D). masu ka?(D). 31. Kono heya wa okiu gozaimasu (D). 32. Ano okii heya wa 34. Ano okii inu wa Itiffutai (B). 33. Kono kuroi inu wa chiiso gozaimasu (D). 36. Kono kodomo wa kitano gozaimasu ka ? (D). 35. Ano inu wa kitanai (B). 38. Ano uchi wa kitanai (B). 37. Ano takai uchi wa shiroi desu ka ? (C). shiroku nai (B). 4. Is 1. Is that desk dear ? 3. That flower is red. 2. This desk is cheap. 6. You are that paper white ? 5. This paper is not white this paper is red. 10. 7. I am not big. 9. Is that child small ? 8. This room is dirty. big. That child is not small. 11. I am small. 12. Is this black dog dirty ? 13. That black dog is not dirty. 14. Is this book dear ? 15. This book is not dear. 16. Is that house red ? 17. That house is not red. 18. This watch is 21. That cheap. 19. Is that big shop cheap ? 20. That shop is not cheap. shop is dirty. 22. Is this clock dear ? 23. This clock is not dear. 24. Is that 25. This pencil is not black ; this pencil is red. 26. Is that red pencil black ? book dear ? 27. This red book is not dear. 28. Is that high house dirty ? 29. That house is not dirty. 30. Is this room small ? 31. This room is big. 32. That big room is dirty. 33. That black dog is small. 34. Is that big dog 35. That dog is dirty. 36. This child is dirty. 37. Is that high house dirty ? white ? 38. That house is not white. ; EXERCISE Certain nouns followed and are by the particle 3, na or no have the called quasi-adjectives. force of adjectives, When used predicatively de takes the place of na (or no) and is followed by aru, arimasu or gozaimasu according to the degree of politeness. Note that de aru is generally abbreviated to da, and de arimasu to desu. In the negative na (or no) is changed to de wa (often abbreviated to ja). Some true adjectives may be used attributively as quasi-adjectives in na after supressing the final i of the adjective. Thus okii uchi or oki na uchi a big house ; chiisai mise or chiisa na mise a small shop. kin (noun) kin no (adj.) baka : a fool. ; baka na : foolish : gold. silly. ; na : convenient. na : pretty clean. na : clever. na no benri kirei riko murasaki no ; : violet (colour). oki na : big. chiisa na : small. : a particle used for forming quasi- adjectives. : a particle used for forming quasiadjectives ; also means possession ; of. wata(ku)shi no : my mine. anata no : your yours. ; ; : a particle. da (=de aru) : ja =de wa. de is. Ano kirei na inu wa riko desu ka ? (C). 2. Ano inu wa baka de gozaimasu 3. Kono chiisa na inu wa riko de gozaimasu (D). 4. Kono oki na tsukue wa benri de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 5. Kono tsukue wa benri de wa nai (B). 6. Anata no tokei wa kin de gozaima#ii ka ? (D). 7. Kono tokei wa kin ja nai (B). 8. Anata no empitsu wa murasaki de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 9. Watashi no empitsu wa murasaki j a arimasen ; watashi no wa kuroi desu (C). 10. Kono murasaki no empitsu wa benri desu (C). 11. Ano oki na kodomo wa baka desu ka ? (C). 12. Ano kodomo wa riko da (B). 13. Anata no heya wa kirei de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 14. Watakushi no heya wa kirei de wa gozaimasen (D). 15. Kono kirei na hon wa anata no hon desu ka ? (C). 16. Sono hon wa watashi no ja nai (B). 17. Anata no empitsu wa murasaki desu ka ? (C). 18. Watakushi no empitsu wa murasaki de gozaimasu (D). 20. Kin no tokei wa kirei desu (C). 19. Kin zva kirei da (B). 21. Inu no uchi ifa chiisai (B). 22. Sono kirei na hon wa Taro no hon desu (C). 24. Sono empitsu wa 23. Kono murasaki no empitsu wa anata no desu ka ? (C). waashi no ja nai ; watashi no wa akai (B). 25. Ano oki na uchi wa anata no 27. Watashi no uchi uchi' desu ka ? (C). 26. Ano uchi wa watashi no ja nai(B). wa chiisa na uchi desu (C). 28. Ano kodomo wa baka na kodomo de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 29. Ano kodomo wa balcaja nai (B). 1. (D). 3. This small dog is not convenient. 6. Is your watch gold ? (is yours a gold watch ?) 7. This watch is not gold. 8. Is yours a violet pencil ? 9. My pencil is not violet it is black. 10. This violet 12. That boy is clever. 13. 11. Is that big boy silly ? pencil is convenient. 15. Is this pretty book 14. My room is not pretty. Is yours a pretty room ? yours ? 16. That book is not mine. 17. Is yours a violet pencil ? 18. My 21. The 20. Gold watches are pretty. 19. Gold is pretty. pencil is violet. 1; 2. That dog is stupid. Is that pretty dog clever ? 5. This desk is 4. Is this big desk convenient ? clever. ; 23. Is this violet dog's kennel is small. 22. That pretty book is Taro's. mine is red. 25. Is that big house 24. That pencil is not mine pencil yours ? 28. Is that yours ? 26. That house is not mine. 27. Mine is a small house. a silly child ? 29. That child is not silly. ; EXERCISE When de ani. the fie masen or as a predicate, the noun is followed by affirmative, and dc tea nai, de, wa arithe gnzahnanu Remember the contractions noted HY/ gozahnasen in the negative. verb .'to be' lias a noun in aritiiaxn or (k <h' 4. in the previous lesson. ' ' meaning possess is translated by aru, arimasu or gozaimasu (got) in the affirmative, and by nai. uri waxen or gozaimaseH in the negative; the English ' Have ' subject takes the postposition wa, and takes the postposition ga. ginko : a bank. hagaki : a postcard. kitte : a postage stamp. neko : a cat. .fhhnbun : a newspaper. kore : and the object becomes the Japanese subject are to ga : ; sore : that (noun). and. : postposition often used after the subject of a sentence. nani ? nan ? what ? this (noun). Are wa anata no uchi desu ka ? (C). 2. Are wa watakushi no uchi de gozai4. Sore wa Taro 3. Kore wa Taro no neko de gozaimasu ka ? (D). (D). no neko da (B). 5. Ano lakai uchi wa ginko ka ? (B). 6. Ano uchi wa ginko 7. Sore wa anata no kitte de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 8. Kore wa wataja nai (B). 9. Anata wa shimbun ga arimasu ka? (C). kiishi no kitte de wa gozaimasen (D). 11. Anata wa hagaki to kitte ga gozaimasu 10. Watashi wa shimbun ga aru (B). ka ? (D). 12. Watashi wa hagaki wa arimasu ; kitte wa arimasen (C). 13. Anata wa murasaki no empitsu ga aru ka ? (B). 14. Watashi wa murasaki no empitsu ga nai (B). 15. Anata wa kami to empitsu ga arimasu ka ? (C). 16. Wnlashi wa kami ga gozaimasen (D). 17. Watashi wa neko ga arimasu ; anata wa nani ga arimasu ka? (C). 18. Watashi wa chiisai inu ga aru (B). 19. Are n7/ nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 20. Are wa ginko desu (C). 21. Kono oki na uchi wa nan de gozaimasu ka ? (D). 22. Kore wa mise da (B). 23. Sore wa anata no l.fiiku-e de.m ka ? (C). 24. Kore wa watashi no de wa arimasen (C). 25. Wntashi no tsukue wa chiiso gozaimasu (D). 26. Sore wa shimbun desu ka ? (C). 27. Kore wa shimbun de gozaimasu (D}. 28. Kono ginko wa okjiu gozaimasu ka ? 29. Kono ginko wa okiu gozaimasen (D). 30. Are wa riko na neko desu (D). ka ? (C). 31. Are- wa baka na neko da (B). 32. Anata no neko wa kuro gozaimasu ka ? (D). 33. Watashi no neko wa shiro gozaimasu (D). 34. Are wa nan desu ka ? (C). 35. Are wa neko de gozaimasu (D). 1. masu that your house ? 2. That is my house. 4. 3. Is this Taro's cat ? Taro's cat. 5. Is that tall building a bank ? 6. That building is not a bank. 7. Is that your stamp ? 8. This stamp is not mine. 9. Have you a newspaper? 10. I have a newspaper. 11. Have you a postcard and a stamp ? 12. I have got a postcard; I haven't got a stamp. 13. Have you got a violet 15. Have you got some paper and a pencil? 14. I haven't got a violet pencil. 16. I have not got any 17. I have a cat, what have you got ? pencil ? paper. 18. I have a little dog. 19. What is that ? 20. That is not a bank. 21. What is this big house ? 22. This is a shop. 23. Is that your desk ? 24. This is not mine. 25. Mine is a small desk. 26. Is that a newspaper ? 27. This is a newspaper. 28. Is this a big bank ? 29. This is not a big bank. 30. Is that a clever cat ? 31. That is a stupid cat. 32. Is your cat black ? 33. My cat is white. :u. What is that? 35. That is a cat. 1. That Is is EXERCISE 5. he (in a place)' 'there is' use the verb ant. ar imasu or speaking of things without life; and int., imosu or orimasu if speaking of living things. The negative forms of these latter verbs are i-nai. imasen, .In the sense of 'to gozaimasu if orimasen. hako imo potato. tegami uma : ushi : ; ; ; ; : a letter. a horse. a bull cow ; ; ; ox. ; Kami wa doko ni ariinasu ka? Koko ni ginkoga gozaimasu ka ? 2. Kami wa ano oki na hako ni (B). 4. Koko ni oki na ginko ga ariinasu (D). (C). ? (D). 6. Asuko ni wa tokei wa nai (B). 7. 1. 3. : Mr Mrs Master Miss. koko : here this place. asuko ; soko : there that place. doko ? where ? ni : in ; at to ; etc. San a box. : : am (C). 5. Asftko ni tokei ga gozaimasu ka Sono hako ni imo ga am ka ? (B). 8. Kono hako ni wa imo ga gozaimasen (D). 9. Anata no uchi ni uma ga imasu ka ? (C). 10. Watakushi no uchi ni uma ga orimasen (C). 11. Yamada San no uchi ni ushi ga iru ka? (B). 12. Yamada San no uchi ni ushi to uma ga iru (B). 13. Taro San wa uchi ni imasu ka? (C). 14. Taro tea uchi ni orimasen (C). 15. Anata no uchi ni neko ga imasu ka? (C). 16. Watashi no uchi ni wa neko ga imasen (C). 17. Yamada San no tegami wa 18. Yamada San no tegami wa asuko ni wa ariga orimasu ka ? (C). 20. Koko ni wa uma ga i-nai 22. Imo wa k&no halao ni am 21. Imo wa doko ni gozaimasu ka? (D). (B). 24. Jiro wa Yamada San no 23. Jiro San wa doko ni orimasti ka? (C). (B). uchi ni orimasu (C). 25. Anata no hako wa kirei de gozaimasu (D). 26. Kore wa Taro San no tegami desu ka ? (C). 27. Sore wa Taro San no tegami ja nai (B). 29. Taro San no tegami wa ano 28. Taro San no tegami wa doko ni aru ka? (B). kirei na hako ni gozaimasu (D). 30. Ano oki na uma wa Yamada San no desu ka ? (C). 31. Are wa Yamada Son no uma ja nai, Jiro no uma da (B). 32. Anata no shiroi neko wa doko ni imasu ka ? (C). 33. Shiroi neko wa asuko ni orimasu (C). 34. Shimbun wa soko ni arimasu ka? (C). 35. Koko ni wa shimbun ga nai (B). ano hako ni ariinasu ka masen (C). 19. ? (C). Soko ni uma 3. Is there a bank 1. Where is the paper ? 2. The paper is in that big box. here ? 4. There is a big bank here. 5. Is there a clock there ? 6. There is no clock there. 7. Are there any potatoes in that box ? 8. There are none in 10. There is no horse this box. 9. Is there (have you) a horse at your house ? 12. At Mr in my house. 11. Are there any cows at Mr Yamada 's place ? Yamada 's place there are both cows and horses. 13. ...
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