Existential theory of Victor frankl.doc - THE...

This preview shows page 1 - 3 out of 7 pages.

THE EXISTENTIALTHEORY OF VICTOR FRANKL BACKGROUND • Existential Psychology • Kierkegaard & Heidegger → Existential philosophers • Studied Freud & Adler → Freud placed undue emphasis on will to pleasure → Adler focused too much on will to power • Third Viennese school of Psychotherapy. • Transcendental theory of being • Life is given to us so that we can find meaning, even in suffering. VIEW OF THE PERSON • Humans have been given the freedom to exercise responsibility • We live on a dimension of meaning in realizing timeless values emanating from a divine/transhuman dimension. 1. The Freedom to be Responsible • Human being = Spiritual being → Has freedom & responsibility. → Not just a highly developed animal • Free will = Freedom to choose → Can’t blame our actions on conditioning or drives → Have to bear responsibility 2. A Level of Being Beyond Animal Existence •True fulfillment is impossible without a sense of purpose • Every situation contains a challenge to live our lives purposefully, with meaning. • Rejects psychoanalysts & learning theorists who explain all human behavior on the basis of subhuman levels of being • Physical, psychological and social aspects → are natural and do not radically distinguish humans from animals. • Self-Transcendence → Uniquely human → We have the freedom to rise above conditions, and to think and do something about them • We are geared towards finding meaning in life, even if our will to meaning is dormant or suppressed. 3. The Transhuman Dimension • Freedom without responsibility is senseless Freedom to question life & its meaning is senseless if such meaning doesn’t exist. • Meaning → Not created or invented, but found Exists in an objective sense → proved by the fact that we feel addressed by our conscience & called upon to act right → Emanates from a transhumant dimension → Have universal and timeless significance
→ can be discovered by anyone, at any time, under any circumstances. • Conscience→ The vehicle through which we detect meaning → More than just the superego → has transcendent qualities • Faith → Unshakeable belief that life has ultimate meaning → The subjective experience of the objective existence of a Transhuman dimension → “The substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not yet seen” 4. A Highly Personalised (Personally Accountable) Way of Being • Meaning of life cannot be incorporated by one religion • Dimension of meaning transcends our comprehension of it • Every person has the right & freedom to decide to what he is accountable • Something is meaningful only if it is personally experienced as such • Religion is genuine only when it is existential p442 THE STRUCTURE OF THE PERSONALITY 1 The Three Dimensions of the Personality • Dimensional ontology → There are three levels/dimensions of existence → Physical, psychological and spiritual • Physical → Complex biomechanical mechanism → Similar to a machine

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture