Lecture+1+INTRO+TO+DNA+AND+SYNTHESIS

Lecture+1+INTRO+TO+DNA+AND+SYNTHESIS - The Learning and...

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Unformatted text preview: The Learning and Academic Resource Center LARC, UCI assistance program to help students achieve their academic goals LARC offers peer tutorials and adjuncts taught by specialists in the field Enroll through WebReg For individual appointments or questions contact the LARC office at X46451 LARC website: http://www.larc.uci.edu Discussion sessions started today and attendance is mandatory. The discussion is worth 10% of your grade. Discussion points result from quizzes, worksheets, problem sets and a variety of in-class activities. Please attend the discussion you are enrolled in. Discussion Leaders for Sections A and D: johnsond@uci.edu jory.uci.edu velazque@uci.edu kglauber@uci.edu labbott@uci.edu Dr. David Johnson Jillian Ory Eric Velazquez Kristine Glauber Dr. Laura Abbott Dr. Abbott is also the course coordinator. All administrative questions should be sent to Dr. Abbott. Fall 2008 BIO97 Genetics: Drs. Edinger, Brachmann, and Taagepera 1. Assigned problems: not collected 2. First Midterm: Oct. 10 (2 weeks from now) 3. INSTRUCTORS CANNOT ALTER ENROLLMENT 4. Email . . . Dear Dr. _______ (Professor _______ is OK too), Short email with correct grammar and capitalization without abbreviations. Sincerely, Your full name UCI ID# Section Who am I, anyway? UC Davis undergrad, EAP program in England (http://www.cie.uci.edu/academics/bio.html) Veterinary school and PhD at PENN PhD: HIV and SIV Postdoc: cancer biology Current research: how cell growth is controlled through the regulation of nutrient uptake My commitment to you I will try to: Post lectures 2 days before class Keep lectures interesting, yet clear Convince you that understanding genetics can be useful in your daily lives Answer all your questions to the best of my ability What I expect from you Come to class and participate Maintain good study habits: read the assigned chapters, go over your notes Do the problems (in reading, step by step, and listed "problems for solution") Ask questions when you don't understand Suggestions and feedback--what worked and what did not Genetics is the study of biological inherited traits How is genetic information stored? How is it passed between generations? How does DNA determine phenotype? How can we monitor changes in DNA? How does genetics influence the development of disease? Genes are made up of nucleotides of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) A nucleotide has three components DNA has polarity 5' end 3' end DNA is composed of purines and pyrimidines Hydrogen bonds are like VELCRO A and G are purines science.exeter.edu/ jekstrom/SEM/SEM.html T and C are pyrimidines Together, many weak bonds are strong! Purines pair with pyrimidines A G C T Animation: DNA structure http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/anisamples/molecularbiology/DNA_structure.html DNA replication is semiconservative DNA strands are antiparallel DNA is always polymerized Origins of replication are where DNA duplication begins Prokaryotes have one while eukaryotes have many origins of replication Replication is bidirectional Rate of replication: 10-100 nt/second! DNA replication requires many different proteins Helicase: unwinds/unzips DNA SSBs: stabilize single stranded DNA Gyrase: relieves torsional stress RNA primase: primes DNA synthesis DNA polymerase: synthesizes DNA DNA ligase: seals ends DNA helicase and SSBs DNA helicase DNA gyrase Helicase unzips the DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the strands Single strand binding proteins (SSBs) prevent "rezipping" SSBs Werner syndrome (premature aging) may be caused by defects in a DNA helicase http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=gnd.section.188&ref=sidebar Clinical correlate: Cisplatin Used to treat metastatic testicular tumors, metastatic ovarian tumors, and advanced bladder carcinoma One way it works: covalently cross-links the two strands of DNA Why does this matter? Why do you need a gyrase? Creates a doublestrand break Swivels DNA ends Rejoins the strands Topoisomerases are gyrases Clinical correlate: Ciprofloxacin Use to treat anthrax (and more common bacterial infections!) Cipro inhibits the bacterial topoisomerase II thereby interfering with DNA replication Etoposide and doxorubicin are important cancer chemotherapeutics that inhibit topoisomerase II DNA polymerase catalyzes the addition of the appropriate nucleotide Clinical correlate: Methotrexate Treatment for leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, etc.; also used in some inflammatory diseases Methotrexate inhibits purine synthesis ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/05/2008 for the course BIO SCI 05300 taught by Professor Edinger during the Spring '08 term at UC Irvine.

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