EXPERIMENT_1 - EXPERIMENT 1: BACTERIAL MULTIPLICATION AND...

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EXPERIMENT 1: BACTERIAL MULTIPLICATION AND GENETICS Clara E. Fletcher MMG 408 Fall 2006
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Table of Contents Introduction……………………………………………………………………. ..…. .Page 3 Materials and Methods……………………………………………………………. ...Page 5 Results……………………………………………………………………………….Page 6 Discussion………………………………………………………………………. ..…Page 9 Questions……………………………………………………………………. .…….Page 11 Appendix I……….…………………………………………………………………Page 14 Appendix II………………………………………………………………………. ..Page 16 References. ..………………………………………………………………………. .Page 17
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Introduction Bacteria serve as model organism for genomic studies. Specifically, the E.Coli bacterium is most useful in laboratory studies. Because much of the genome, or genetic sequence of E.Coli is known, genetic mapping and comparison using this microbe is very efficient. Bacteriophages are also very useful in genetic studies. Studies with phages have led to discoveries about recombination between mutations, as well as discoveries of the sequence of genomes themselves. By using phages the mutationss of different genes can be observed, including recombination, complementation and reversion gene products. Bacteriophages infect bacteria, solely relying on the host bacterium for all means of making more phage. A phage injects its own DNA into the host cell, directing the host to create more phage. This lytic cycle continues until the host cell lyses, releasing many phage into the surrounding environment. The number of phage infected in each cell can be estimated using a one-step growth curve. In this part of the experiment, bacterial cells and phage are mixed, and then samples are taken and plated at specific times. The one step growth curve not only expresses the number of phage per bacterial cell at one time, but also pictorially represents the different phases of phage infection in the cells. Bacteriophage experimentation also helps demonstrate many different types of gene mutations. Injecting mutant genes into bacteria will allow the bacteria to take up the mutations, either expressing or repressing them. This shifting in gene sequence can result from recombination or complementation, depending on whether or not the mutation occurs on the same or different genes. In recombination, crossovers between mutations occur most often when mutations are further part. The recombination frequency is an experimentally measured value that can predict the distance between two mutations on
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DNA. Complementation happens between two different genes, and occurs when two mutant genes in combination allow a phenotype to exist that would not normally exist in
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EXPERIMENT_1 - EXPERIMENT 1: BACTERIAL MULTIPLICATION AND...

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