Atkins_chapt_10_part1

Atkins_chapt_10_part1 - Chemical Principles The Quest for...

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1 CHAPT 10 CHAN - 110606 Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight Third Edition Chapter 10 Acids and Bases Peter Atkins and Loretta Jones
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 2 The Nature of Acids and Bases Acids and bases in solutions Acid bases in non-aqueous solutions Acid bases in absent of solvents
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 3 Household products Lemon Soda water 7-up Vinegar Ammonia Lye Milk of magnesia Detergent in water
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 4 a. Lemon, b. Soda water, c.7-up, d. vinegar, e. Ammonia  f. Lye, g. Milk of magnesia, h. Detergent in water
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 5
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 6 Arrhenius acids and bases  Review page-F 68 An acid is a compound that contains  hydrogen and reacts with water to form  hydrogen ions. HCl  (ag)  +  H 2 (l)     H 3 (aq)  + Cl (aq) A base is a compound that produces  hydroxide ions in water. NH 3 (aq)   +  H 2 O (l)    NH 4 + (aq)  + OH (aq)
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 7
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 8 Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Danish chemist Bronsted English chemist  Lowry An acid is a proton donor A base is a proton accepter
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 9 Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 10 Ammonia is a weak base
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 11 Proton transfer reaction is a reaction in which a proton is transferred  from one species to another. HCl  (ag)   +  H 2 (l)    H 3 O (aq)   + Cl -  (aq) Hydronium ion   H 3 O
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 12
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 13 Strong acids and weak acids A strong acid is completely deprotonated in solution A weak acid is incompletely deprotonated in solution A strong base is completely protonated in solution A weak base is incompletely protonated in solution
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 14 Strong acids and weak acids A strong acid is about 100 % ionized HCl  (ag)   +  H 2 (l)    H 3 O (aq)   + Cl -  (aq) A weak acid  about 1% ionized HCN  (aq)   + H 2 O (aq)  <=> H 3 O (aq)  +CN-  (aq)
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 15 Some Strong acids in water Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydroiodic acid Nitric acid Chloric acid Perchloric acid Sufuric acid HBr HCl HI HNO 3 HClO 3 HClO 4 H 2 SO 4
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 16
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CHAN - 110606 CHAPT 10 17 WEAK HCO 3 -  (aq) + H 2 O     H 3 O +  (aq)  +  CO 3   2-  (aq) 2-   (aq)  + H 2 O (l)   2 OH  –  (aq) NH 3 (aq)   +  H 2 O (l)      NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq)
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CHAPT 10 18 Conjugate acid and Conjugate base The conjugate base of an acid is the  base formed when the acid has donated  a proton. The conjugate acid of a base is the acid 
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Atkins_chapt_10_part1 - Chemical Principles The Quest for...

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