Life Sciences Exam I Notes �

Life Sciences Exam I Notes � - Life Sciences Exam I...

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Life Sciences Exam I Notes – (Fall 2008) Chapter 4 – Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Macromolecules: Structure and Function We are carbon… o All living organisms are made up of molecules based mostly on the element carbon ( Why is carbon so special? ) o Carbon has four valence electrons ( What does this mean? ) o This allows it to form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms o Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules and vary in length and shape o o Hydrocarbons Are made up of carbon and hydrogen and are found in many of a cell’s organic molecules ( Why are they called hydrocarbons? ) (a) A fat molecule consists of a small, non- hydrocarbon component joined to three hydrocarbon tails. The tails can be broken down
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to provide energy. They also account for the hydrophobic behavior of fats. (Black = carbon; gray = hydrogen; red = oxygen.) (b) Mammalian adipose cells stockpile fat molecules as a fuel reserve. Each adipose cell in this micrograph is almost filled by a large fat droplet, which contains a huge number of fat molecules. o Isomers Are molecules with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties Three types of isomers: Structural Geomentric Enantiomers Enantiomers o Are important in the pharmaceutical industry o Functional groups o Are the chemically reactive groups of atoms within an organic molecule o Can dramatically change the properties of molecules
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o o Important functional groups: o
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o o MEMORIZE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS! – KNOW WHAT MOLECULE IS BEING ADDED!! Chapter 5 – The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids Most macromolecules are polymers , built from monomers o Monomers can either be identical (e.g., a string of glucose), or different (e.g., amino acids in a protein) The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers o Although organisms share the same limited number of monomer types, each organism is unique based on the arrangement of monomers into polymers, e.g. DNA o An immense variety of polymers can be built from a small set of monomers, e.g., proteins from
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amino acids o Monomers form larger molecules by condensation reactions called dehydration reactions o Polymers can disassemble by hydrolysis (e.g., during digestion of food) o Three of the classes of life’s organic molecules are polymers o Carbohydrates Carbohydrates include both sugars and their polymers Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Monosaccharides Are the simplest sugars Can be used for fuel Can be converted into other organic molecules Can be combined into polymers May be linear or can form rings
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MEMORIZE NUMBER SYSTEM OF RING CARBOHYDRATES!!! Disaccharides
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Life Sciences Exam I Notes � - Life Sciences Exam I...

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