Life Sciences Exam II Notes - Spring 2008

Life Sciences Exam II Notes - Spring 2008 - Principles of...

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Principles of Life Sciences Exam II Notes Chapter 33 – Invertebrate Diversity Invertebrate Diversity Organismal Diversity o Multicellularity o Choanoflagellate Became colonial and developed into multicellular organism o Animal Phylogeny o 1 st branch lead on tree to porifera or sponges 1 st we will look at sponges to show how we become multicellular and how we are developed Then how we became more complex o Two trends we will follow: A general relationship btw species How systems appear and how we become more complex
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o o Phylum Porifera (pori = opening; fera = animal; pore bearing animal) Sponges Ancient Greeks viewed as plants Going from single-celled to multicellular 1 st time we see multicellularity o Multiple cell types make up a sponge 5,500 species Multicellularity Porifera Anatomy 4 Different Cells: o Choanacyte Coanoflagallate Contains a flagella Move water throughout a sponge Beat their flagella to pull water into center of sponge Choanocyte Anatomy Spicules (CaCO , SiO , Spongin) o Supportive structures o Give sponges some of their shape o Several diff types and differ by what they are made of o CaCO Basket Sponge Form little triangular spikes Come in all different shapes and sizes Are embedded in walls of sponge o Silicon Dioxide Made of glass which makes up skeleton of
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sponge Venus Flower Basket – given as wedding gift; 2 shrimp trapped in sponge forever o Spongin Real sponge we would use like from bed, bath, and beyond Spongin fibers o Amoebocyte Moves around in body of sponge o Porocyte Pore forming cell How water will pass through wall of sponge o Pinacytye Epidermis Outerlayer for outside surface of sponge Sponge Body Plan: o Asconoid Side of sponge not thick Pore leading into center which are all choanocytes Pulls water into sponge These sponges will be small and simple o o Syconoid Flagellated chambers – lined w/ choanocytes Increases surface area
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o o Leuconoid Channels come in leading into numerous flagellate chambers and ultimately heading out a central osculum Most sponges are these o o Become more complex w/ each one of these Nutrition: Filter Feeding: o Feed by filter feeding o Beat their flagella to draw in water, water passes through that collar and particles get trapped in cell body and get digested o Some of these nutrients can be transferred to amoebocytes which will transport it to the rest of the body o Best filter feeder sponge o 2-5 um particle size bacteria, sm protist, lg organic molecules o Asbestopluma Predatory sponge (hooked spicules) o Reproduction: Asexual: o Fragmentation If you break sponge in half, each half will grow back
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Best animal w/ ability to undergo regeneration Not a high deal of complexity to their structure Some fresh water sponges can form a gemmule which can help
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Life Sciences Exam II Notes - Spring 2008 - Principles of...

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