Life Sciences Exam III Notes - Spring 2008

Life Sciences Exam III Notes - Spring 2008 - Principles of...

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Principles of Life Sciences Exam III Notes Animal Tissues Tissue definition: o Tissue- a group of closely associated, similar cells that work together to carry out specific functions Types of vertebrate tissue o 1. Epithelial tissue a. Simple cubodial Function: o Secretion and absorption Main location: o Linings of the kidney tubules and gland ducts b. Simple columnar Function: o Secretion, (especially of mucus) o Absorption o Protection Protects epithelium from enzymes Main location: o Much of digestive tract o Upper part of respiratory tract c. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium, ciliated Function: o Secretion o Protection o Movement of mucus Main location: o Some respiratory passages o Ducts of many glands d. Simple squamous epithelium Function: o Passage of materials where little or no protection is needed and where diffusion is the major form of transport Main location: o Air sacs of lungs o Lining of blood vessels e. Stratified squamous epithelium Function: o Protection only o Little of no absorption or transit of materials
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o Outer layer continuously sloughed off and replaced from below o Several layers of cells, w/ only the lower ones columnar and metabolically active Main location: o Skin o Mouth lining o Vaginal lining o 2. Connective tissue Characterized by a large intercellular matrix a. Bone Function: o Supports and protects internal organs o Calcium reserve o Skeletal muscle attachment Main location: o Skeletal structures Microstructure: o Haversian system o Haversian canal o Osteocytes o Lacunae containing osteocytes o Canaliculi o Bony matrix o Blood vessels within bone b. Dense connective tissue Function: o Support: transmissions of mechanical forces Main location: o Tendons o Many ligaments o Dermis of skin c. Cartilage Function: o Flexible support and reduction of friction in bearing surfaces Main location: o Supporting skeleton in sharks and rays o Ends of bones in mammals, and some other vertebrates o Supporting rings in walls of some respiratory tubes o Tip of nose o External ear Microstructure:
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o Chondrocytes (cartilage cell) o Lacuna (contains chondrocytes) o Intercellular matrix d. Loose connective tissue Function: o Support o Reservoir for fluid and salts Main location: o Everywhere that support must be combined w/ elasticity, such as a subcutaneous layer Microstructure: o Collagen fibers o Elastic fibers o Fibroblasts o Semifluid matrix e. Reticular connective tissue Function: o Support Main location: o Framework of liver o Lymph nodes o Spleen f. Elastic connective tissue Function: o Confers elasticity Main location: o Structures that must both expand and retract to their original size, such as lung tissue and large arteries Comment: o Branching elastic fibers interspersed w/ fibroblasts g. Adipose tissue Function: o Food storage o Insulation o Support of such organs as mammary glands
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Life Sciences Exam III Notes - Spring 2008 - Principles of...

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