Criminal Justice Notes � Exam 1

Criminal Justice Notes � Exam 1 - Criminal Justice...

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Criminal Justice Notes – Exam 1 Chapter 1 – Crime and Criminal Justice Definitions Crime- a violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people holding social and political power. Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority, social stigma, and loss of status Deterrence (general vs. specific) o general- trying to prevent you from doing crimes o specific- meant for people who have already committed and crime Recidivism- refers to the habitual offenders; they come out of prison and commit another crime; 60% of people who come out of prison will go back within the next year Social control (formal vs. informal) o formal- police work o informal- takes over formal control; your friends and family influence Criminal Justice- (get def) Criminology- studies the etiology (origin), extent, and nature of crime in society Big difference between criminal justice and criminology The Criminal Justice System- a loosely organized collection of agencies charged with protecting the public, maintaining order, enforcing the law, identifying transgressors… Is Crime a Recent Development? It’s been common since beginning of nation Crime rates today are much higher than 19 th and 20 th century The Modern Era of Justice Beginning in 1950s by American Bar Foundation o 1 st time Criminal Justice System was used o focused on Criminal Justice process o examination of the use of discretion Federal Involvement in Criminal Justice 1967 President Commission on Law Agencies of Criminal Justice System Over 55,000 public agencies employing over 2 million people serve as societies instrument of social control 3 major components o Law Enforcement (17,000 agencies) o Courts (17,000 courts; 8,000 prosecutional agencies) o Corrections (6,000 institutional; 3,500 probation and parol) System costs federal, state, and local govt. approximately $165 billion per year for civil and criminal justice o has increased more than 300% since 1982
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The Informal Criminal Justice Process Courtroom work group o prosecutor, defense attorney, judge, and others o function to streamline the process of justice through the extensive use of plea bargaining and other alternatives The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake I Celebrated cases o involving the wealthy and famous which gives false impression of criminals II Serious felonies o rapes, robberies, and burglaries III Less serious felonies o committed by young or first time offenders IV Misdemeanors o disorderly conduct, shoplifting, public drunkenness, and minor assalt Perspectives on Justice The Crime Control Perspective o Emphasizes the control of dangerous offenders of streets and in prison. Advocates (supports) harsh punishment (ex. death penalty) purpose is to deter crime through the application of punishment more efficient system greater effectiveness equipped to investigate crimes, apprehend suspects and punish the guilty
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This note was uploaded on 10/06/2008 for the course CRJU 20413 taught by Professor Price during the Fall '07 term at TCU.

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Criminal Justice Notes � Exam 1 - Criminal Justice...

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