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Unformatted text preview: CVA Exam I Notes Lecture 1: Introduction Ch. 1 pg. 1-3 and Ch. 18 Introduction to CVA Why study comparative anatomy? o 1) To provide insight into the relationship between form and function Functional morphology: The discipline that relates a structure to its function Homocercal tail o Bass o Both lobes are equal in size, making the tail symmetrical o Have a swim bladder which gives them neutral buoyancy Heterocercal tail o Shark o The upper lobe is elongated What factors influence an animals form or design? The environment exerts evolutionary pressures o Features that convey an adaptive advantage are favored by natural selection Internal structure itself affects the kinds of designs that do or do not appear in animals o Evolutionary history plays a role in determining an animals design o Structural possibilities of vertebrates are limited Natural selection o Structure (evolutionary history, structural possibilities limited)* o 2) To provide insight into evolutionary relationships Evolutionary morphology o 3) To allow extrapolations between taxa/model systems o 4) CVA is a means to an end Objectives of Course o Overview of vertebrate structure Basic design Variation among groups o Understand the relationship between form and function Mechanics Adaptations and constraints o Distinguish homology from convergence o Understand the evolutionary relationships between vertebrate groups o Construct classifications that reflect relatedness among vertebrate groups Class Reptilia lizards, crocs Class Aves birds Lepidosauria: lizards and snakes Archosauria: crocs and birds The Bottom Line o 1) Understand the major anatomical evidence for common descent o 2) Develop a firm foundation in anatomy that will serve you in medical gross anatomy (human or veterinary) CVA Discussion o What can we learn by studying CVA? o Why are you taking this class? Lecture 2: Evolution Ch. 1 pg. 3-9; 18-20; 20-27 Evolution Review from last lecture: o Why do biologists take a comparative approach to the study of anatomy? Evolution discussion o What are the first things that come to mind when you hear the term evolution? o W/o using you notes or book define evolution o What is the relationship btw natural selection and evolution? o What is the mechanism by which novel structures evolve? o Definitions of evolution: Change in the genetic frequency of a population over time The naturalistic process responsible for the diversity of life biological evolution may be slight or substantial; it embraces everything from slight changes in the proportion of different alleles within a population (such as those determining blood types) to the successive alterations that led from the earliest proto- organisms to snails, bees, giraffes, and dandelions o Evolution is not An explanation for the origin of life on earth An alternative to belief in God or religion...
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