Psychology Test 3

Psychology Test 3 - Chapter 11 Intelligence Definitions...

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Chapter 11- Intelligence Definitions Intelligence - (literal definition)- the ability to learn or understand from experience, mental ability o People who are intelligent have the capacity to adapt, learn from experience, and reason clearly Intelligence tests - tests for assessing a person’s mental abilities and comparing them with the abilities of other people, by means of a numerical score o I.Q. Test has a cultural bias o The average IQ for college students is 120 o Developed in France by a man named Binet o He developed the test b/c the French decided that all children needed to go to school and they needed to know where to place them o He was worried that this test would be abused… and it was. It was first abused by Frances Galton in (1911) he decided he was going to give it to children and adults and place them where they should be; he tested people and said people with higher scores were superior o The IQ test is also called the Stanford Binet intelligence test Theories of Intelligence Controversy with the test: Is Intelligence culturally defined? o Obviously it is b/c people of all different cultures were taking the test Controversy two: Is Intelligence composed of one General Ability or several Specific Abilities? o Our mental abilities are just too diverse to justify a label Spearman o General Intelligence (g) factor - a general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test Thurstone- argued that intelligence has 7 distinct mental abilities o Spatial Ability o Perceptual Speed o Numerical Ability o Verbal Meaning o Memory o Word Fluency o Reasoning Crystallized vs Fluid Intelligence- (1971) according to Cattel there is 2 clusters of mental abilities; the crystallized part is affected by experience, it is one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, especially formal education Fluid Intelligence would be something you either had or did not; spatial ability (you either got it or you don’t) and one’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory- (1985) – the thought intelligence should be measured at how affective you were in life; the thought most children should be tested on this and see which one of the following they were stronger in; our intelligence is best classified into three areas that predict our real-world success: analytical, creative, and practical o Componential Intelligence- ability to acquire new knowledge and solve problems; this is what is emphasized by most theories o Experiential Intelligence- ability to adapt creatively to a new situation o Contextual Intelligence- ability to capitalize your strengths and minimize your weaknesses;
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people who scored high in this seemed to do better in life Gardener’s Multiple Intelligence-(1980s) – our abilities are best classified into eight independent intelligences, which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts
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Psychology Test 3 - Chapter 11 Intelligence Definitions...

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