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Life Sciences Exam 1 - fall 2008 part 2

Life Sciences Exam 1 - fall 2008 part 2 - Fructose o(muscle...

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Fructose o (muscle, kidney) Converts to: Fructose-6-phosphate o (liver) Converts to: Fructose-1-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate Galactose (Galactose-1-phosphate) o Converts to: Glucose-1-phosphate o Fats – triacylglycerol Made up of fatty acid and 3 glycerol chains Where we store out energy Enters at: Glyceraldehyde-3-P o Enters as glycerol and produces glycerol Acetyl CoA o Fatty acids enter in a process called β oxidation Best for storing energy Lipids o 9 kcal/g Proteins and carbs o 4 kcal/g o Proteins Body can use proteins for energy Amino acid oxidation α -Keto acids o Go back into Krebs cycle once formed by amino acids NH o SEE POWERPOINT FOR SUMMARY SLIDES!!! DNA Structure and Replication Size of DNA: o 3.2 Billion bases long! Overview of Akkaraju’s lectures on molecular biology o What is the structure of DNA and how was it elucidated? o How does DNA replicate? o How is the information stored within DNA expressed in the cell? How is RNA produced and how is the RNA translated into protein? Goals of this lecture o What is the structure of DNA? o What are the experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as the genetic material? o How is DNA packaged in the cell? Why study DNA? o If we understand how DNA works at the molecule level, we can then understand how it functions at the cellular level o This will give us a better understanding of how DNA affects characteristics and traits that we see
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in organisms around us and in ourselves o Tells us a lot about genetic diseases o Understanding DNA is important in understanding human health Molecular Biology: A chronology o For over 10,000 years humans have bred and developed animals for specific desirable characteristics indicating that they had the knowledge of transfer of traits o Gregor Mendel (1856-63) Did the first systematic experiments showing transfer of traits from one organisms to another in a mathematically predictable manner Model organism: Pea plant Mendel tested over 28,000 pea plants btw 1856 and 1863 Analyzing seven pairs of seed and plant characteristics, e.g., plant height, pod shape, pod color, flower position, seed color, seed shape and flower color Made two very important generalizations from his pea experiments, known today as the Laws of Heredity Coined the present day terms in genetics: Recessiveness Dominance o T.H. Morgan (1915) Showed that chromosomes transferred traits The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933 For his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity Morgan’s first mutant: Model organism : Prosophilia melanogaster – fruit fly o Have giant chromosome that are good for study o Discovered mutant after 3 or 4 years that had white eyes o Babies of the white-eyed mutant all had red eyes so he knew red was dominant Means that traits don’t mingle
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Life Sciences Exam 1 - fall 2008 part 2 - Fructose o(muscle...

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