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Unformatted text preview: Chapter ELEVEN Communication 1 Functions of Communication
The transference and the understanding of meaning. 2 The Communication Process Channel The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. Types of Channels Formal Channels Informal Channels 3 Sender
E N C O D I N G D E C O D I N G Receiver
4 Interpersonal Communication One-way communication Vs. Two-way communication 5 Interpersonal Communication Communication pitfalls perception - process of receiving and interpreting information filtering - process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information cannot assume the other person means what you think s/he means or understands the intended meanings 6 Interpersonal Communication Mixed signals and misperception can avoid these problems by taking the time to: ensure that the receiver attends to the message consider the receiver's frame of reference and convey the message from that perceptual viewpoint take concrete steps to minimize perceptual errors and improper signals send consistent messages 7 Direction of Communication
Upward Downward Lateral Downward Communication Problems: information overload lack of openness - withhold information even if sharing is important filtering - some information is left out Message can be distorted by adding personal interpretation the fewer the number of authority levels through which communication must pass, the less information will be lost or distorted
9 Information Loss In Downward Communication
100% Board 63% Vice presidents 56% General managers 40% Plant managers 30% Supervisors 20% Workers
10 Organizational Communication (cont.) Downward communication (cont.) Coaching - important form of downward communication dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve her/his full potential on the job used to deal with performance problems or to help person change behavior coaches for executives sometimes hired from outside the firm often incumbent on managers to coach themselves Downward communication in difficult times communication important during mergers and acquisitions full communication helps employees deal with anxiety signals care and concern for employees 11 Upward Communication Managing upward communication managers should facilitate upward communication managers must motivate people to provide valid information upward communication can use informal channels 12 Horizontal Communication Managing horizontal communication direct contact among managers integrative roles, task forces, and project teams management information systems create a culture of openness, honesty, trust, and mutual obligation 13 Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication Written Communication Nonverbal Communication 14 Three Common Formal SmallGroup Networks 15 Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria
TYPES OF NETWORKS Criteria Channel Speed Accuracy Chain Moderate High Wheel Fast High High Low All Fast Moderate None High Emergence of a leader Moderate Member satisfaction Moderate 16 Grapevine Grapevine Characteristics Informal, not controlled by management. Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. Results from: Desire for information about important situations Ambiguous conditions Conditions that cause anxiety 17 The Grapevine
Control Reliability SelfInterests Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors
1. Announce timetables for making important decisions. 2. Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive. 3. Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans. 4. Openly discuss worst-case possibilities--it is almost never as anxiety-provoking as the unspoken fantasy. Source: Adapted from L. Hirschhorn, "Managing Rumors," in L. Hirschhorn (ed.), Cutting Back (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983), pp. 5456. With permission. 19 Computer-Aided Communication E-mail Instant messaging Intranet Extranet Videoconferencing 20 Knowledge Management (KM)
A process of organizing and distributing an organization's collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. 21 Channel Richness Choice of Communication Channel The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. Characteristics of Rich Channels 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 2. Facilitate rapid feedback. 3. Are very personal in context. 22 Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering
A sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual's processing capacity.
23 Barriers to Effective Communication (cont'd) Emotions
How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.
24 Communication Barriers Between Men and Women Men talk to: Women talk to: Emphasize status, power, and independence. Complain that women talk on and on. Offer solutions. To boast about their accomplishments. Establish connection and intimacy. Criticize men for not listening. Speak of problems to promote closeness. Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.
25 Silence as Communication Absence of speech or noise Powerful form of communication Can indicate Thinking Anger Fear Watch for gaps, pauses, & hesitations in conversations 26 Improving Communication Skills Improving sender skills Presentation and persuasion skills redundancy - state your viewpoint in a variety of ways powerful messages are simple and informative Writing skills - require clear, logical thinking strive for clarity, organization, readability, and brevity first draft rarely is as good as it could be be critical of your own writing Language - word choice can enhance or interfere with communications consider the receiver's background and adjust your language learn something about foreign language for overseas business 27 Improving Communication Skills (cont.) Nonverbal skills signals other than those that are spoken or written can support or undermine the stated message nonverbal cues may make a greater impact than other signals can send a positive message with nonverbal signals by: using time wisely arranging the office to foster open communication body language facial expression and tone of voice Nonverbal signals in different countries need to correctly interpret the nonverbal signals of others
28 Improving Communication Skills (cont.) Improving receiver skills Listening - good listening is difficult and not nearly as common as needed reflection - process by which a person states what s/he believes the other person is saying listening begins with personal contact good listening leads to development of trust Reading - reading mistakes are common and costly read memos as soon as possible note important points for later referral read materials outside of your immediate concerns 29 Ten Keys To Effective Listening
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Find an area of interest Judge content, not delivery Hold your fire Listen for ideas Be flexible Resist distraction Exercise your mind Keep your mind open Capitalize on thought speed Work at listening
30 Improving Communication Skills (cont.) Improving receiver skills (cont.) Observing effective communicators able to observe and interpret nonverbal signals personally visiting plants and other locations to get a firsthand view of operations must accurately interpret what is observed Effective supervision communicate more information prefer asking and persuading to telling and demanding are sensitive to people's feelings and needs are willing, empathic listeners
31 "Politically Correct" Communication Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult individuals. In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others. Removed: handicapped, blind, and elderly Replaced with: physically challenged, visually impaired, and senior. Removing certain words from the vocabulary makes it harder to communicate accurately. Removed: garbage, quotas, and women. Replaced with terms: post consumer waste materials, educational equity, and people of gender. 32 Barriers to Effective Cross-Cultural Communication Semantics Word connotations Tone differences Perception differences 33 Highvs. LowContext Cultures 34 Chapter Check-Up: Communication
Consider the way in which this man is communicating? What channel is he using? How rich is it? For what kinds of messages would it be appropriate? Not appropriate? ...
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- Fall '07