Chapter 2 - What Is Scientific Inquiry? Chapter 2 Overview...

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What Is Scientific Inquiry? Chapter 2
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Overview of Chapter Questions: What Is Scientific Inquiry? What Are the Types of Studies in Psychological Research? What Are the Data-Collection Methods of Psychological Science? How Are Data Analyzed and Evaluated?
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What Is Scientific Inquiry? Four goals of scientific inquiry: Description ( what happens): Prediction ( when it happens): Causal Control ( what causes it to happen): Explanation ( why it happens):
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The Empirical Process Depends on Theories, Hypotheses, and Research
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The Methods of Psychological Science
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What Are the Types of Studies in Psychological Research? • An Experiment Involves Manipulating Conditions • Correlational Designs Examine How Variables Are Related • Descriptive Studies Observe and Classify Behavior
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An Experiment Involves Manipulating Conditions Manipulating independent variables and measuring dependent variables helps to establish causal relationships Random assignment helps create equivalent groups
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List of Core Features of Experimental Methods: Independent Variables (IV’s) Dependent Variables (DV’s) Random Sampling from Representative Populations Random Assignment to Conditions or Treatments Efforts to “Control” or minimize extraneous/irrelevant factors
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One set of variables.
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Three sets of variables
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Independent Variables Are Manipulated by Experimenters Experimenter “Control” is the Central Feature of IV’s IV’s are NOT “Free to Vary”; Instead, they are “Fixed by Design”
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One Example: Rush et al. (1977) Cognitive Psychotherapy vs. Medication vs. Placebo Participants recruited from newspaper ads IV = “Treatment” tricyclic antidepressant medication vs. Placebo medication vs. 2x/week cognitive therapy for 3 months
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Dependent Variables Are Measured in Relation to IVs DV’s are said to Depend on, be “ Effects ” of, or be “ Caused ” by IVs DV in Rush et al = depression after 3 months Results: About 30% placebo and 60% other 2 groups judged “not depressed” Conclusions?
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Correlational Designs Examine How Variables Are Related A correlation reflects the association between two variables, expressed as a coefficient of association (r) which varies from +1 to –1
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Scatterplot Data Underlie Correlations:
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Visualizing Various Scatterplots:
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Two “problems” with inferences of causation from correlational data 1) the directionality problem 2) the third variable problem
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Chapter 2 - What Is Scientific Inquiry? Chapter 2 Overview...

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