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Unformatted text preview: Chapter FOURTEEN Power and Politics 1 A Definition of Power
Power A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A's wishes. Dependency B's relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires. 2 Contrasting Leadership and Power Leadership Focuses on goal achievement. Requires goal compatibility with followers. Focuses influence downward. Research Focus Leadership styles and relationships with followers. Power Used as a means for achieving goals. Requires follower dependency. Used to gain lateral and upward influence. Research Focus Power tactics for gaining compliance.
3 Bases of Power: Formal Power
Formal Power Is established by an individual's position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information. Coercive Power Reward Power Legitimate Power
4 Bases of Power: Personal Power
Expert Power Referent Power 5 Dependency: The Key To Power What Creates Dependency Importance of the resource to the organization Scarcity of the resource Nonsubstitutability of the resource 6 Power Tactics
Power Tactics Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Influence Tactics: Legitimacy Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Personal appeals Ingratiation Pressure Coalitions
7 Preferred Power Tactics by Influence Direction
Upward Influence Downward Influence Lateral Influence Rational persuasion Consultation Ingratiation Exchange Legitimacy Personal appeals Coalitions Rational persuasion Rational persuasion Inspirational appeals Pressure Consultation Ingratiation Exchange Legitimacy 8 Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics Sequencing of tactics Softer to harder tactics work best. Skillful use of a tactic Relative power of the tactic user Some tactics work better when applied downward or upward. The type of request attaching to the tactic Is the request legitimate? 9 Factors Influencing the Choice and Effectiveness of Power Tactics cont... How the request is perceived Is the request consistent with the target's values? The culture of the organization Culture affects user's choice of tactic. Country-specific cultural factors Local values favor certain tactics over others.
10 Power in Groups: Coalitions
Coalitions Clusters of individuals who temporarily come together to achieve a specific purpose. 11 Sexual Harassment: Unequal Power in the Workplace Under Title VII, sexual harassment is illegal since it constitutes discrimination with respect to an individual's conditions of employment. EEOC Definition: Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature when: Submission to such conduct by an individual is made explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of employment, and Submission to, or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for an employment decision.
12 Two Types: Quid Pro Quo Hostile Environment 13 Steps for Managers to Take to Prevent Sexual Harassment Make sure a policy against it is in place. Ensure that employees will not encounter retaliation if they file a complaint. Investigate every complaint and include the human resource and legal departments. Make sure offenders are disciplined or terminated. Set up in-house seminars and training. 14 Politics: Power in Action
Political Behavior Activities that are not required as part of one's formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics. Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game.
15 "Political" Label "Effective Management" Label 1. Blaming others 2. "Kissing up" 3. Apple polishing 4. Passing the buck 5. Covering your rear 6. Creating conflict 7. Forming coalitions 8. Whistle blowing 9. Scheming 10. Overachieving 11. Ambitious 12. Opportunistic 13. Cunning 14. Arrogant 15. Perfectionist vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. vs. Fixing responsibility Developing working relationships Demonstrating loyalty Delegating authority Documenting decisions Encouraging change and innovation Facilitating teamwork Improving efficiency Planning ahead Competent and capable Careerminded Astute Practicalminded Confident Attentive to detail Source: Based on T. C. Krell, M. E. Mendenhall, and J. Sendry, "Doing Research in the Conceptual Morass of Organizational Politics," paper presented at the Western Academy of Management Conference, Hollywood, CA, April 1987. Politics Is in the Eye of the Beholder 16 Employee Responses to Organizational Politics Decreased job satisfaction. Increased anxiety and stress. Increased turnover. Reduced performance. 17 Avoiding Action: Overconforming Buck passing Playing dumb Stretching Stalling Defensive Behaviors Avoiding Blame: Buffing Playing safe Justifying Scapegoating Misrepresenting Avoiding Change: Prevention Self-protection 18 Impression Management (IM)
Impression Management Techniques Conformity Excuses Apologies Self-Promotion Flattery Favors Association
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- Fall '07