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Unformatted text preview: Chapter NINETEEN Organizational Change and Stress Management 1 Forces for Change Nature of the workforce Technology Economic Shocks Competition Social trends World politics 2 Managing Planned Change
Planned Change Activities that are intentional and goal oriented.
Goals of Planned Change: Improving the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in the organization. Change Agents Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities. 3 Resistance to Change
Forms of Resistance to Change
Overt and immediate
Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and deferred
Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism 4 Sources of Individual Resistance to Change 5 Sources of Organizational Resistance to Change 6 Overcoming Resistance to Change Tactics for dealing with resistance
to change: Education and communication Participation Facilitation and support Negotiation Manipulation and cooptation Selecting people who accept change Coercion 7 The Politics of Change Impetus for change is likely to come from outside change agents. Internal change agents are most threatened by their loss of status in the organization. incremental change. Longtime power holders tend to implement only The outcomes of power struggles in the organization will determine the speed and quality of change. 8 Lewin's ThreeStep Change Model
Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity. Refreezing Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces. Driving Forces Forces that direct behavior away from the status quo. Restraining Forces Forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium. 9 Lewin's ThreeStep Change Model 10 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed. Form a coalition with enough power to lead the change. Create a new vision to direct the change and strategies for achieving the vision. Communicate the vision throughout the organization. Empower others to act on the vision by removing barriers to change and encouraging risk taking and creative problem solving. Plan for, create, and reward short-term "wins" that move the organization toward the new vision. Consolidate improvements, reassess changes, and make necessary adjustments in the new programs. Reinforce the changes by demonstrating the relationship between new behaviors and organizational success.
11 Kotter's EightStep Plan for Implementing Change Source: Based on J. P. Kotter, Leading Change (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1996). Action Research
Action Research A change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicates.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Action research benefits: Problem-focused rather than solution-centered. Heavy employee involvement reduces resistance to change. 12 Diagnosis Analysis Feedback Action Evaluation Organizational Development
Organizational Development (OD) A collection of planned interventions, built on humanisticdemocratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee wellbeing. OD Values:
1. Respect for people 2. Trust and support 3. Power equalization 4. Confrontation 5. Participation 13 Organizational Development Techniques
Sensitivity Training Training groups (Tgroups) that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction. Provides increased awareness of others and self. Increases empathy with others, improves listening skills, greater openness, and increased tolerance for others. 14 Organizational Development Techniques (cont'd)
Survey Feedback Approach The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies among member perceptions; discussion follows and remedies are suggested. 15 Organizational Development Techniques (cont'd)
Process Consultation (PC) A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on around the client, within the client, and between the client and other people; identifies processes that need improvement. 16 Organizational Development Techniques (cont'd)
Team Building High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness.
Team Building Activities: Goal and priority setting. Developing interpersonal relations. Role analysis to each member's role and responsibilities. Team process analysis. 17 Organizational Development Techniques (cont'd)
Intergroup Development OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other.
Intergroup Problem Solving: Groups independently develop lists of perceptions. Share and discuss lists. Look for causes of misperceptions. Work to develop integrative solutions. 18 Organizational Development Techniques (cont'd)
Appreciative Inquiry Seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance.
Appreciative Inquiry (AI): Discovery: recalling the strengths of the organization. Dreaming: speculation on the future of the organization. Design: finding a common vision. Destiny: deciding how to fulfill the dream. 19 Contemporary Change Issues For Today's Managers How are changes in technology affecting the work lives of employees? What can managers do to help their organizations become more innovative? that continually learn and adapt? How do managers create organizations Is managing change culturebound? 20 Technology in the Workplace Continuous Improvement Processes Good isn't good enough. Focus is on constantly reducing the variability in the organizational processes to produce more uniform products and services.
Lowers costs and raises quality. Increases customer satisfaction. Organizational impact Additional stress on employees to constantly excel. 21 Technology in the Workplace Process Reengineering "Starting all over" Rethinking and redesigning organizational processes to produce more uniform products and services.
Identifying the organization's distinctive competencies--what it does best. Assessing core processes that add value to the organization's distinctive competencies. functional and selfmanaged teams. Reorganizing horizontally by process using cross 22 Contemporary Change Issues for Today's Managers: Stimulating Innovation
Innovation A new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service.
Sources of Innovation: Structural variables Organic structures Long-tenured management Slack resources Interunit communication Organization's culture Human resources 23 Creating a Learning Organization
Learning Organization An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change.
Characteristics: 1. Holds a shared vision. 2. Discards old ways of thinking. 3. Views organization as system of relationships. 4. Communicates openly. 5. Works together to achieve shared vision. Source: Based on P. M. Senge, The Fifth Discipline (New York: Doubleday, 1990). 24 Creating a Learning Organization
Single-Loop Learning Errors are corrected using past routines and present policies. Double-Loop Learning Errors are corrected by modifying the organization's objectives, policies, and standard routines. 25 Creating a Learning Organization
Fundamental Problems in Traditional Organizations: Fragmentation based on specialization. Overemphasis on competition. Reactiveness that misdirects attention to problem-solving rather than creation. 26 Managing a Learning Organization
Establish a strategy Managing Learning Redesign the organization's structure Reshape the organization's culture 27 Mastering Change: It's Culture Bound
Questions for culture-bound organizations:
1. Do people believe change is even possible? 2. How long will it take to bring about change in the organization? 3. Is resistance to change greater in this organization due to the culture of the society in which it operates? 4. How will the societal culture affect efforts to implement change? 5. How will idea champions in this organization go about gathering support for innovation efforts? 28 Too Much Work, Too Little Time
With companies downsizing workers, those who remain find their jobs are demanding increasing amounts of time and energy. A national sample of U.S. employees finds that they:
Feel overworked Are overwhelmed by workload Lack time for reflection Don't have time to complete tasks Must multi-task too much 54% 55% 59% 56% 45% Source: Business Week, July 16, 2001, p. 12. 29 Work Stress and Its Management
Stress A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. 30 A Model of Stress 31 Potential Sources of Stress Environmental Factors
Economic uncertainties of the business cycle Political uncertainties of political systems Technological uncertainties of technical innovations security Terrorism in threats to physical safety and 32 Potential Sources of Stress Organizational Factors
Task demands related to the job Role demands of functioning in an organization employees Interpersonal demands created by other 33 Potential Sources of Stress (cont'd) Individual Factors Family and personal relationships Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity Personality problems arising from basic disposition Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual's future Greater job experience moderates stress effects Social support buffers job stress Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress Strong feelings of selfefficacy reduce reactions to job stress 34 Individual Differences Consequences of Stress
High Levels of Stress Physiological Symptoms Psychological Symptoms Behavioral Symptoms 35 InvertedU Relationship between Stress and Job Performance 36 Managing Stress Individual Approaches
Implementing time management Increasing physical exercise Relaxation training Expanding social support network 37 Managing Stress Organizational Approaches Improved personnel selection and job placement Training Use of realistic goal setting Redesigning of jobs Increased employee involvement Improved organizational communication Offering employee sabbaticals Establishment of corporate wellness programs 38 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/18/2008 for the course MGT 325 taught by Professor Roth during the Fall '07 term at Michigan State University.
- Fall '07