eChp. 1 The science psychology ●psychological science is the study, through research of mind, brain and behavior. ●mind: mental activity and the perception of the 5 senses and memories, thoughts, and feelings. these result from biological processes within the brain. ●behavior- observable actions. ●overt behavior- observable, anything that can be seen and measured ●covert behavior- internal thoughts, feelings, emotions. having the thought “i hate you” ●Zeitgeist: a dominant intellectual style or school of thought that typifies and influences culture in a particular period of time. fashion is a good example. ●zeit= time ●geist= spirit Nature vs Nurture Debate Mind/ Body Problem ●What is the relationship between the mind and body? ●monoism: mind and body are one ●dualism: mind and body are separate Scientific observation ●Wilhelm Wundt- german professor who founded the first psychology laboratory. basically sounded the notion that psychology should be studied in a scientific manner. ●introspection- basically having ppl say their thoughts out loud. largely subjective and unverifiable ●structuralism- conscious experience can be broken down into underlying basic components. ex: present a piece of fruit and ask ppl to describe what they were perceiving, shape, smell, color, texture.
●functionalism- focus on the adaptive purpose or function of mind and behavior. william james founded this. ex: behaviors aimed at survival and adaptation to the environment. 20th century: Sigmund Freud ●behavior is determined by unconsciousness ●he saw psychology as a set of conflicts that we haven’t resolved. ●mental forces in conflict— psychological discomfort. ex: repressed childhood experiences cause unconscious conflicts in adulthood. ●psychoanalysis: bring unconscious into conscious awareness in order to reveal conflict. methods: free association, dream interpretation. ●freud became very popular. teacher does not like him at all. ●freud set back the study of psychology greatly ●behaviorism- focus on the role of environment on observable behavior. cues in the environment that trigger our behavior. stop light. Current state of psychology ●emphasis on research, behaviorism, evidence based practices, observable behaviors. ●emerging overlap with medical field- Chapter 2 Research Methodology ●why does research methodology matter? helps us determine what phenomena we should believe in vs stuff that may or may not be true. ●four primary goals of science: ●description- describe what a phenomenon is. how many people text while driving? how many accidents result from that? anything that helps us understand the phenomenon. ●prediction- predict when the phenomenon will occur. Under what circumstances are ppl likely to text while driving?
●Control- control what causes the phenomenon to occur. Is texting the cause of problematic driving?
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- Psychology, current state